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3 1833 02390 3567 

Do c s • 





lBti)tv Crarts* 




V. I 

VOL. I. 

Hijlory of the Dividing Line 


1866. ■ 



Hiftorical Documents 


>Y*w *^ 

to iSommton. 

No. II. 

" Gather up the Fragments that remain." 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



Entered according Co Act of Congrefs in the Year 1866, 


in the Clerk's Office of the Diftrict Court of the United States 

for the K:;ftcrn Diilrift of Virginia. 


^6^?<r5^?lLLIAM Byrd, the firft of that 
CA ($)/¥)) J@) Name who holds a confpicuous 
\\J/V$f^Ju\ Place in the Annals of Virginia, 

X/AxfA™*!? was an active, intelligent and 
v\/i)\/vS\ fuccefsful Man of Bufinefs, and 
^^(C^^^_Z^ vC cP exerted a confiderable Influence 
in the Affairs of the Colony during the latter Part of 
the Seventeenth Century. On the 24th of December, 
1687, he was appointed Receiver General of the royal 
Revenues, the Duties of which Office he continued 
to difcharge until his Death, which occurred on the 
4th of December, 1704; and among the Documents 
printed in this Volume is a Report from the Prefident 
and feveral others of the Council concerning the final 
Settlement of his Accounts in that Capacity. 1 

1 See Vol. ii, P. 203, of this Reprint. In Maxwell's Virginia Hifiorkai 
RegijJcr, Vol. iii, Pp. 181-188, will be found further Information with 

x IntroduSiion* 

His Son, William Byrd, born on the 28th of March, 
1674, filled yet more important Pofitions, and attained 
a far greater Diftinetion. He died in his feventy-firft 
Year on the 26th Auguft, 1744. In the Language of 
the Epitaph upon his Tomb at Weftover, his Seat in 
Charles City County, 

Reference to thefe Accounts; and in earlier Portions of the fame Work, 
Vol. i, 60-66, 114-119, Vol. ii, Pp. 78-83, 205-209, fome additional 
Fafts, chiefly in the Form ot a Selection from his own Letters, concerning 
this William Byrd, who was — not, as Mr. Maxwell ftates, "a Burgefs 
from Henrico, attending the Grand Aflembly at Jameftown in that Charac- 
ter for feveral Years," within the Period of his publifhed Letters from 
1683 to 16S5 inolufive, but, — a Member of the Council which 
formed the Upper Houfe of the Grand Affembly; and this as early as 
1682. (This Statement is made, erroneoufly of courfe, concerning his 
Son frima facie., in an Article in the New American Cyclopedia, Vol. iv, 
P. 167; which Article confounds the two Perfons, making Father and 
Son one and the fame, "born about 1650," which was a little before the 
Time of the Father's Birth ; died in I 743, which was nearly forty Years 
after the Time of his Death, and a little before that of his Son.) It 
appears even from his Letters, to which Mr. Maxwell alludes, that in 
16S2 he was a Member of the Council, and, as fach, of the General 
Court. In Hcning's Statutes at Large, Vol. iii, P. 557, he is mentioned 
in the latter Capacity. 25 April, 1683, by the Style and Title of "Col. 
William Bird." This exprefs Mention in an authentic Document would 
feem to cftablifh conclufively that Campbell was in error in calling his 
Son " the firft Colonel William Byrd" {Iiifi, Virg., 2d Edit., 174/com- 
pare with Pp. 435-436); and that Mr. Maxwell was right in designating 
the Latter as " Colonel William Byrd, the Second of the Name and 
Title" {Fa. Hift. Reg., Vol. iv, P. 75). Though for the moll Part he 
fpc.iks of the Father as "Captain William Byrd," as he is called in 
feveral of our public Papers; of courfe, before he was Colonel. See 
further, Campbell's Hiftory of Virginia, 2d Edition, Pp. 420, 421. 

'Introduction. xi 

" being born to one of the am pled fortunes in this country, 

he was fent early to England for his education, 
where, under the care and direction of Sir Robert Southwell, 

and ever favoured with his particular instructions, 

he made a happy proficiency in polite and various learning. 

By the means of the fame noble friend, 

he was introduced to the acquaintance of many of the firft perfons of the age 

for knowledge, wit, virtue, birth, or high ftation, 

and particularly contracted a moil intimate and bofom friendfhip 

with the learned and illuftrious Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery. 

He was called to the bar in the Middle Temple, 

ftudied for fome time in the Low Countries, 

vifited the Court of France, 

and was chofen Fellow of the Royal Society. 

Thus eminently fitted for the fervice and ornament of his country, 

he was made Receiver General of his majefty's revenues here, 

was thrice appointed public agent to the court and miniftry of England, 

and, being thirty fnven years a member, 

at laft became President, of the Council of this Colony. 

To all this were added a great elegance of taite and life, 

the well-bred gentleman and polite companion, 

the fplendid cconomift and prudent father of a family, 

with the conftant enemy of all exorbitant power, 

and hearty friend to the liberties of his councry."l 

This Inscription is given with two verbal Variations 
of little Confequcnce, in Campbell's Hijlory of Vir- 
giniri) 2d Edit., P. 436, and with only one, the lei's 
Material of the two, in the nrft Edition of that Work, 
Pp. 113, 114. He feems to have been the immediate 
Succefibr to his Father as Receiver General (fee Vol. ii, 
P. 202 of this Reprint) ; and therefore it would have 
been more accurate to fay, " he was made Receiver Gen- 
eral of her Majefty's Revenues here," Oueen Anne 
being at that Time on the Throne ; but it is poflible he 
continued fuch Receiver under his Majefty George the 

1 Weftover Manufcripts, Edition of 1841, P. iv. 

xii IntrodtiEttmt 

Firfl, and likewife under his Majefty George the 
Second. From Records of the Council, ftill preferved, 
it appears that he became a Member of it and Pre- 

This monumental Tribute is, indeed, a cordial Ex- 
preflion of the Merits of the Man ; but, fo far from 
being open to the Charge of Flattery, it falls fhort of 
the Panegyric employed by raoft of thofe who have 
written of Virginia Affairs during his Time. Rev. 
William Stith, a Contemporary, in the Preface to his 
unfinifhed hiflorica] Work, which abruptly breaks oftat 
the Year 1624, thus fpeaks of the fecond William Byrd: 

cc I muft confefs myfelf moit endebted, in this Part 
of my Hiitory, to a very full and fair Manufcript of 
the London [Virginia] Company's Records, which 
was communicated to me by the late worthy Prefident 
of our Council, the Honourable William Byrd, Efq. 
Neither could I excufe myfelf if I did not likewife 
acknowledge with what Humanity and Politenefs that 
well-bred Gentleman and Scholar not only communi- 
cated thofe Manufcripts to me, but alio threw open 
his Library (the bell and moil copious Collection of 
Books in our Part of America), and was himfelf ever 
fludious and lolicitous to fearch out and eive me 
whatever might be ufeful to my Undertaking." 1 

1 Stith's Hi/lory of Virginia, Page v of Preface, dated " Varina, 
Dec. 10, 1746." 

Of the Weftover Library, founded by this Colonel Byrd, and aug- 
mented probably by bis Son, the Third of the fame " Name and Title/' 

Introdii&ion. xiii 

But the heft Exposition of his Character, and the 
mod enduring Monument to his Memory, will be 
found in his own Writings, which, fo far as is now- 
known, with the fingle Exception of a curious Paper 
concerning a Negro Boy, dappled with white Spots, 
contributed to the Philofophical 'Traiifafiious in 1607, 1 

fomc Account may be feen in Maxwell's Virg. Jlifl. Reg., Vol. iv, Pp. 

Refpecling the MSS. here mentioned by Stith, it has been commonly 
faid of late that they were purchafed in London by the Col. Byrd here 
fpoken of, Son of the Firit, and Father of the Laft that have now been 
noticed. It is itated in a Letter of Mr. Jefferfon (Works, Edit. iS>6. 
Vol. vii, P. 312), that they were bought at the Sale of the Earl of 
Southampton's Library, " by Doctor Byrd, of Weitover." But the 
molt truitworthy Account feems to be that given by Stith, in his Preface 
above quoted. " As thefe Records," fays he, " are a very curious and 
valuable Piece of the Antiquities of our Country, I fliall give the Reader 
an Account of them I received, many Years ago, in Converfatiou. wkh 
Col. Byrd and Sir John Randolph. I had then no thoughts of Writing 
the Hiitory of Virginia, and therefore took lefs Notice than I othcrwife 
mould have done. However, as I am perhaps the only Perfon now 
living anything acquainted with their Hiitory, it will not be improper to 
give it to the Reader, as I judge it highly worthy of his Knowledge." 
He then gives a Relation of the Manner in which they were made, and 
authenticated and fubfequently preferred till the Death of an Earl (mif- 
called by him Duke) of Southampton, " which happened in the Year 
1667," when, he fays, "the late Col. Byrd's Father, being then in 
England, purchafed them of his (Lord Southampton's) Executors for 
fixty Guineas." See further on this Subject an Article headed " Stith's 
Hiitory of Virginia,'' Southern Literary Mejenger, September, 1S63, 

P P- 554-565- 

1 New American Cyclopedia, Vol. iv, P. 167; Allibone's Difthnary 
of Authors, Edition of 1859, Vol. i, P. 3] 8. 

xiv Iiitrodu&ion. 

are all comprifed in the prefent Volume. Of thefe 
Writings, T'he Uiftory of the Dividing Line, A Journey 
to the Land of Eden, and A Vrogrefs to the Mines , were 
publimed in the Year 1841, in a Volume entitled The 
fFeJlover Manufcripts, although they were not quite fo 
fully prcfented therein as might have been defired. 
From the Preface to that Volume the following Paflao-e 
is extracted : 

"The Manufcripts of Col. William Byrd, of Weft- 
over, the Father of the laft Proprietor of the fame 
Name, of different Dates from 1728 to 1736, are 
contained in a large folio Volume, bound in Parch- 
ment, which has been carefully preferved in his Family, 
until recently placed in the Hands of the Editor. 
The Whole is in the Hand-writing of a Copyifl, but 
written evidently under the immediate Direction of 
its Author, as there are numerous Corrections, Inter- 
lineations, and more confiderabie Additions, in his own 
Hand-writing. The Book was doubtlefs copied from 
the Author's earlieft Draught on loofe Sheets, which 
were afterwards deftroyed, as ufelefs. At any Rate, this 
old Volume is the only Copy in Existence. 1 The 

1 This Statement feems incorrect as to Part of the Contents of the 
Volume. Ten Years after the Date of the Publication from the Preface, 
to which the above PalTage is taken, Mr. Lyman C. Draper, in a Letter 
to Mr. Charles Campbell, giving an Account of the Welrover Library, 
the Catalogue whereof, " a three Ouire quarto Volume, Gilt-edged, and 
gilt red Morocco Binding," was then, certainly, and probably is ftill, 
extant, fays : " In the Catalogue I ice no Mention of the MS. Journal 
of Running the Dividing Line between Virginia and North Carolina in 

hitrodu&io'n. xv 

Hiftorical Society of Virginia obtained the Confcnt 
of the Proprietor of the Manufcripts to have them 
copied, with a View to Publication. But the Opera- 
tions of that Society ceafed before the Publication 
had been commenced, and when only one of the feveral 
Manufcripts had been copied. 1 It was one of the lateft 
Acls of the laft Proprietor, George E. Harrifon. 
Eiq., of Brandon, to place at our Difpofal this highly 

1728 — Copies of which I have heretofore informed you, are in the 
Library of the American Philofophical Society ; one, judging from the 
Title, the fatae as that publifhed among the ' Weftover Manufcripts ' at 
Peterfburg, in 1841; the other, the 'Secret Hiitory of the Dividing 
Line.' Neither of thefe have I yet found the right Time to call and 
examine, and the only Knowledge that I have of them is from the Cata- 
logue of the Society which pofiefles them." — Maxwell's Virg. Hi ft. Rt'g., 
Vol. iv, P. SS. Without further Information on the Subjeft, it is im- 
poffibk even to form a reafonable Conjecture whether thefe two Papers 
are "Conies" of one and the fame Original, differing in nothing but the 
Title, or of fubftantially different Compofnions ; or whether indeed they 
are Copies at all, and not the very Originals, which, inftead oi being 
written on loofe Sheets and deftroyed, as the Editor fuppofes, may have- 
been given by the Widow of the laft Colonel Byrd, who was a Philadel- 
phia Lady, to the Society named, which had its Seat in that City. The 
Statement quoted in the Text had Reference, doubtlefs, only to Colonel 
Byrd's own Writings; elfe it would have been inaccurate as to yet another 
Part of the Contents of " this old Volume." as will preiently be fecn. 
l This relates to the firft Affbciation, known as the Virginia Historical 
Society. Several Years afterwards another, under the fame Name, or 
the fame under another Organization, fprang into a&ive Exiftence, ar.d 
continued to flouriih until the breaking out of the late Civil War. It: 
"Operations" were then fufpended ; but we may hope that the Society 
did not itfelf become extinct. 

x vi In l roduEtion . 

valued Work of this diflinguifhed and talented An- 
ceftor, with Pcrmiilion to publifh any Portion, or the 
Whole of the Contents, provided the manufcript 
Volume itfelf mould be preferved uninjured, and 
afterwards reftored to the Owner. The better to 
fecure the latter Objeft, the Copy of the Part made 
for the Ufe of the Hiftorical Society, has alfo been 
placed in our Hands by the Directors." 

To this fubilantially correcl: Account of the Parch- 
ment-bound Folio, (the Contents of which, however, 
arc not fully, nor as to their Dates quite accurately no- 
ticed in it) we fubjoin a Statement made at our requeft 
by the cftimable and accomplifhed Widow of Mr. 
Harrifon. Thefe are her written Words : 

"This Manufcript was the Production of the fecond 
Colonel Byrd, of Wefiover, who for his rare Wit, 
Learning and Wifdorn was ftyled the 'Black Swan' 
of the Family. It defcended to his Son, the laft 
Colonel William Byrd, who married Mifs Mary Wil- 
ling, of Philadelphia. She prefented this Book to 
George Evelyn Harrifon, the Son of her Daughter, 
Evelyn Byrd, who had married Mr. Benjamin Har- 
rifon, of Brandon." 

As already intimated, the Volume contains Articles 
not hitherto Printed, partly compofed, partly colleded 
only, by Col. Byrd; and all its Contents were tranf- 
cribed by his Copyilt without Regard to chronological 
Order, Connection of Subjects, or Method of any 

Int?"oduEiion. xvii 

Kind. Neverthelefs, his accidental and chaotic Ar- 
rangement, or rather Want of all Arrangement, has 
been fcrupuloufly followed in this Reprint ; the Aim of 
which has been to give, as far as it was practicable with 
Types, fac-fimile Copies of his Tranfcript ; and with 
this View numerous Exprcflions are here "faithfully 
prefented," which, probably becaufe they were thought 
too free, were either altered or entirely fuppreffed in 
the partial Publication of 1841. It may be that the 
Editor of that Volume, following the Copy made for 
the Hiftorical Society, was led unknowingly into thefe 
Alterations and Omimons, which pombly had been 
therein introduced, or they may have been the Refult 
of his own Tafte and Judgment. Whatever the Fact, 
this Reprint has reverted to the original Manufcript, 
and the Whole is here given with perfect Fidelity. 

A few Words defcriptive of the "Parchment-bound 
Folio" itfelf will conclude this Introduction. 

The Cover, which is of white Vellum, meafures 
fourteen and a half Inches in Length, ten and a quar- 
ter Inches in Breadth, and a quarter of an Inch in 

The Leaves are fourteen Inches Long, and nine and 
three quarter Inches wide. 

The Volume is lettered on the Back, the Lettering 
beginning at one Inch from the Top, thus — 
Hiflory of the 
Line and Other 



On the Infide of the Cover is a Copy of the Book- 
plate, which is to be found in all the Books which be- 
longed to Col. Byrd ; containing his Arms (including 
feVefd Ouarterings), his Name "William Byrd of 
Wefiover in Virginia Efq r '" and the Motto, 
Two blank fly Leaves, plain, with Water Mark "T. 
Gilpin & Co Brandy wine," and one Leaf, with Water 
Mark like the Reft of the Book, i. e., Shield with 

fleur-de-lis and the Monogram yyx, are between 
the Cover and the Commencement of the Manuicript. 
On the Top of the nrit Page of this latter Leaf, one 
Inch from the Top, is written, 

"To M ts Evelyn Taylor Harnfon 

from her arYedtionate 

Mother Mary Byrd" 
and below this, 

Mafter George Evelyn Harnfon 

of Brandon 
Weftover May 12 th 1809." 
On the oppofite Side of this Leaf, which is dis- 
coloured and badly torn, all that can be read is, 

male Creed. 
iftory of the line 

Sec. &c. &c. 



There are 2>&& written Pages, including Contents 
and prefentation Page, 8 blank Leaves between the 
Proceedings of the CommiiTioners appointed to lay- 
out the Bounds of the Northern Neck and the Eflay 
on Bulk Tobacco, ci blank Leaves at the End of the 
MS., and then two fly Leaves exactly fimilar to thofe in 
the firft Part. Every Page is ruled in red Lines, 
enclofing the written Context, an Inch and a half from 
the outer and three quarters of an Inch from the 
inner Edge. Of written Leaves, there are i8j, blank 
Leaves 59, Contents 1, flv Leaves 4 ; Total 246. 
To the Courtefy of Mrs. Harrifon, of Upper Bran- 
don, the Widow of the late George E. Harrifon, Efq., 
mentioned in the Extract from the Preface to the 
Volume publifhed in 1841, we are indebted for the 
Opportunity to fpread the Pages of this interefting 
and valuable Contribution to the colonial Hiftory of 
Our State before the Students of American Civiliza- 

T. H. W. 

Richmond, Va., Nov., 1866. 





Run in the Year 1728. 

EFORE I enter upon the Journal of the Line 
^i^tlW^^ between Virginia and North Carolina, it will be 
^V^i'^^tl/.. Decenary to clear the way to it, by fhewine how 
,-'. ' ■ - -^if tnc other Britifli Colonies on the Main have, one 
v *v after another, been carved out of Virginia, by 

y Grants from his Majefty's Royal Predeceflbrs. All 
that part of the Northern American Continent now 
&fy under the Dominion of the King of Great Britain, and 
Stretching quite as far as the Cape of Florida, went at 
firfl Under the General Name of Virginia. 
The only Diftin&ion, in thofe early Days, was, that all the 
Coaft to the Southward of Chefapeake Bay was called South 
Virginia, and all to the Northward of it, North Virginia. 

The full Settlement of this fine Country was owing to that 
great Ornament of the Britifh Nation, Sir Walter Raleigh, who 
obtained a Grant thereof from Queen Elizabeth of ever-glorious 
Memory, by Letters Patent, dated March the 25th, 1584. 

1 Written as late as 1736. See pofl. Unlefs that palf.ige was an interpolation after 
the work was written. 


2 The Il'iflory of the 

But whether that Gentleman ever made a Voyage thither 
himfelf is uncertain ; becauie thofe who have favour' d the Public 
with an Account of His Life mention nothing of it. However, 
thus much may be depended on, that Sir Walter invited fundry 
perfons of Dillinclion to Share in his Charter, and join their 
Purfes with his in the Laudable project of fitting out a Colony to 

Accordingly, 2 Ships were Sent away that very Year, under 
the Command of his good Friends Amidas and Barlow, to take 
poiTcflion of the Country in the Name of his Roial Miftrefs, the 
Queen of England. 

Thefe worthy Commanders, for the advantage of the Trade 
Winds, ihapcd their Courfe fir ft to the Charibbe Iflands, thence 
ftretching away by the Gulph of Florida, dropt Anchor not far 
from Roanoak Inlet. They ventured amoar near that place 
upon an I Hand now called Colleton ifland, where they fet up the 
Arms of England, and Claimed the Adjacent Country in Right 
of their Sovereign Lady, the Queen ; and this Ceremony being 
duly performed, they kindly invited the neighbouring Indians to 
traffick with them. 

Thefe poor people at firft approacht the Engliih with great 
Caution, having heard much of the Treachery of the Spaniards, 
and not knowing but thefe Strangers might be as treacherous as 
they. But, at length, difcovering a kind of good nature in their 
looks, they ventured to draw near, and barter their Skins and 
Furs, for the Bawbles and Trinkets of the Englifh. 

Thefe firft Adventurers made a very profitable Voyage, railing 
at leaft aThotifand percent, upon their Cargo. Amongft other 
Indian Commodities, they brought over Some of that bewitching 
Vegetable, Tobacco. And this being the firft that ever came 
to England, Sir Walter thought he could do no lefs than make a 
prefent of Some of the brighieir of it to His Roial Miftrefs, for 
her own Smoaking. 

Dividing Line. 


The Queen gracioufly accepted of it, but finding her Stomach 
fickcn after two or three Whiffs, it was prefently wbifpered by the 
earl of Leiccftcr's Faction, that Sir Walter had certainly Poifon'd 
Her. But Her Majefty foon recovering her Diforder, obliged 
the Countefs of Nottingham and all her Maids to Smoak a whole 
Pipe out amongft them. 

As it happen'd ibme Ages before to be the fafhion to Santer 
to the Holy Land, and go upon other Ouixot Adventures, to 
it was now grown the Humour to take a Trip to America. The 
Spaniards had lately diicoveied Rich Mines in their Part of the 
Weft Indies, which made their Maritime Neighbours eager to 
do k too. This Modifh Frenzy being ftill more Inflam'd by 
the Charming Account given of Virginia, by the iirft Adven- 
turers, made many fond of removeing to fuch a Paradiie. 

Happy was he, and ftill happier She, that cou'd get them- 
felves traniported, fondly expecting their Coarfeft Utenfils, in 
that happy place, would be of Many Silver. 

This made it eafy for the Company to procure as many Vo- 
lunteers as they wanted for their new Colony ; but, like moft 
other Undertakers who have no Afilftance from the Public, they 
Starved the Defign by too much Frugality ; for, unwilling to 
Launch out at firft into too much Expenfe, they Ship't off but 
few People at a Time, and Thofe but Scantily provided. The 
Adventurers were, befides, Idle and extravagant, and expeaed 
they might live without work in fo plentiful a Country. 

Thefe Wretches were fet Afhoar not far from Roanoak Inlet, 
but by fome fatal difagreement, or Lazinefs, were cither Starved 
or cut to Pieces by the Indians. 

Several repeated Mifadventures of this kind did, for fome time, 
allay the Itch of Sailing to this New World ; but the Diftcmpcr 
broke out again about the Year 1606. Then it happened that 
the Karl of Southampton and ievcral other Pcrfons, eminent tor 
their Quality and Eftates, were invited into the Company, who 

4 The Hijfory of the 

1729 apply'd themfclves once more to People the then almoft aban- 

April c ] on ' ( i Colony. For this purpofe they emharkt about an Hun- 

"^ dred men, moll of them Riprobates of good Familys, and related 

to fome of the company, who were men of Quality and Fortune. 

The Ships that carried them made a Shift to find a more 

direct way to Virginia, and ventured thro the Capes into the 

Bay of Chefapeak. The fame Night they came to an Anchor 

at the Mouth of Powatan, the fame as James River, where they 

built a Small Fort at a Place call'd Point Comfort. 

This Settlement Hood its ground from that time forward in 
fpite of all the Blunders and Difagrecment of the fir ft Adven- 
turers, and the many Calamitys that befei the Colony afterwards. 
The fix gentlemen who were fir ft named of the company by 
the crown, and who were empowered to choofe an annual Pre- 
fident from among themfclves, were always engaged in Factions 
and Quarrels, while the reft dctefted Work more than Famine. 
At this rate the Colony mull have come to nothing, had it not 
been for the vigilance and Bravery of Capt. Smith, who ftruck 
a Terrour into all the Indians round about. This Gentleman 
took fome pains to perfwade the men to plant Indian corn, but 
they lookt upon all Labour as a Curie. They chofe rather to 
depend upon the Mufty Provifions that were font from England : 
and when they fail'd they were forcl: to take more pains to Seek 
for Wild Fruits in the Woods, than they woud have taken in 
tilling the Ground. Belides, this Expofd them to be knockt on 
the head by the Indians, and gave them Fluxes into the Bargain, 
which thind the Plantation very much. To Supply this mor- 
tality, they were rcinforct the year following with a greater 
number of People, amongft which were fewer Gentlemen and 
more Labourers, who, however, took care not to kill themfelves 
with Work. 2 

-This paragraph is in the form of a note in the manufcript, but the reader will per- 
ceive that it is a portion of the text. Er>. 

Dividing Line. 5 

Thcfe found the Firfl Adventurers in a very ftarving condi- 
tion, but relieve! their wants with the frefh Supply they brought 
with them. From Kiquotan they extended themfelves as far as 
James-Town, where like true Englifhrnen, they built a Church 
that coft no more than Fifty Pounds, and a Tavern that coft 
Five hundred. 

They had now made peace with the Indians, but there was 
one thing wanting to make that peace Lifting. The Natives 
coud, by no means, perfwade themfelves that the Englifii were 
heartily their Friends, (o long as they difdained to intermarry 
with them. And, in earneft, had the Englifii confulted their 
own Security and the good of the Colony — Had they intended 
either to Civilize or Convert thefe Gentiles, they would have 
brought their Stomachs to embrace this prudent Alliance. 

The Indians are generally tall and well-proportion'd, which 
may make full Amends for the Darknefs of their Complexions. 
Add to this, that they are healthy & Strong, with Conftitutions 
untainted by Lewdnefs, and not enfeebled by Luxury. Befulcs, 
Morals and all confidered, I cant think the Indians were much 
greater Heathens than the firft Adventurers, who, had they been 
good Chriftians, would have had the Charity to take this only 
method of converting the Natives to Chriflianity. For, alter 
all that can be faid, a fprightly Lover is the moft prevailing 
Miffionary that can be fent amongft thefe, or any other Infidels. 

Befides, the poor Indians would have had lefs reafon to Com- 
plain that the Englifii took away their Land, if they had received 
it by way of Portion with their Daughters. Had fuch Affinities 
been contracted in the Beginning, how much Bloodfhed had 
been prevented, and how populous would the Country have been, 
and, confequently, how confiderable ? Nor wou'd the Shade of 
the Skin have been any reproach at this day ; for if a Moor may 
be wafht white in 3 Generations, Surely an Indian might have 
been blancht in two. 

6 The IJifiory of the 

The French, for their Parts, have not been To Squeamifh in 
Canada, who upon Trial find abundance of Attraction in the 
Indians. Their late Grand Monarch thought it not below even 
the Dignitv of a Frenchman to become one flefh with this 
People, and therefore Ordered ioo Livres for any of his Sub- 
jects, Man or Woman, that woud intermarry with a Native, 

By this piece of Policy we find the French Intereft very much 
Strengthn'd amongft the Savages, and their Religion, fiich as it 
is, propagated juft as far as their Love. And I heartily with 
this well-concerted Scheme don't hereafter give the French an 
Advantage over his Majefty's good Subjects on the Northern 
Continent of America. 

About the fame time New England was pared off" from Vir- 
ginia by Letters Patent, bearing date April the ioth, 1608. 
Several Gentlemen of the Town and Neighborhood of Plymouth 
obtain'd this Grant, with the Ld Chief Juilice Popham at their 

Their Bounds were Specified to Extend from 38 to 45 De- 
grees of Northern Latitude, with a Breadth of one Hundred 
Miles from the Sea Shore. The firft 14 Years, this Companv 
encounter'd many Difficulties, and loft many men, tho' far from 
being difcouraged, they font over Numerous Recruits of Prefby- 
terians, every year, who for all that, had much ado to ftand their 
Ground, with all their Fighting and Praying. 

But about the year 1620, a Large Swarm of DiiTenters fled 
thither from the Severities of their Stepmother, The Church. 
Thefe Saints conceiving the fame Avcrfion to the Copper Com- 
plexion of the Natives, with that of the firft Adventurers to 
Virginia, would, on no Terms, contract Alliances with them, 
afraid perhaps, like the Jews of Old, left they might be drawn 
into Idolatry bv thofe Strange Women. 

Whatever difgufted them I cant fay, but this fa lie delicacy 
creating in the Indians a Jealoufy that the Englifh were ill 

Dividing Line. y 

affectd towards them, was the Caufe that many of them were 
cut ofF, and the reft Expofed to various Diiheffes. 

This Reinforcement was landed not far from Cape Codd, 
where, for their greater Security they built a Fort, and near it a 
Small Town, which in Honour of the Proprietors, was call'd 
New Plymouth. But they Still had many discouragements to 
Struggle with, tho' by being well Supported from Home, they by 
Degrees Triumph't over them all. 

Their Brethren, after this, flockt over fo faff, that in a few 
Years they extended the Settlement one hundred Miles along 
the Coalr, including Rhode Ifland and Martha's Vineyard. 

Thus the Colony throve apace, and was throng'd with large 
Detachments of Independents and Prefbyterians, who thought 
themfelves perfecuted at home. 

Tho' thefe People may be ridiculd for fome Pharifaical Par- 
ticularitys in their Worfhip and Behaviour, yet they were very 
ufeful Subjects, as being Frugal and Induflrious, giving no 
Scandal or bad Example, at lead by any Open and Public Vices. 
By which excellent Qualities the}- had much the Advantage of 
the Southern Colony, who thought their being Members of the 
Eftablifh't Church fufficient to Sanclifle very loofe and Profligate 
Morals. For this Reafon New England improved much falter 
than Virginia, and in Seven or Eight Years New Plimouth, like 
Switzerland, feemd too Narrow a Territory for its Inhabitants. 

For this Reafon, feveral Gentlemen of Fortune purchaf d of 
the Company that Canton of New England now calld Mafla- 
chufet colonv. And King James conhrm'd the Purchafc by his 
Royal Charter, dated March the 4th, 1628. In lefs than 2 
years after, above 1 000 of the Puritanical Sect removed thither 
with confiderable Effects, and thefe were followed by fuch 
Crowds, that a Proclamation was iffued in England, forbidding 
any more of his Alajefty's Subjects to be Shipt off. But tins 
had the ufual Effect of things forbidden, and ferv'd only to make 

8 The Hi/lory of the 

the Wilful Independents flock over the fafter. And about this 
time it was that Me firs. Hampden and Pym, and (fome fay) 
Oliver Cromwell, to (hew how little they valued the King's 
Authority, took a Trip to New England. 

In the Year 1630, the famous City of Bofton was built, in a 
Commodious Situation for Trade and Navigation, the fame be- 
ing on a Pcninfula at the Bottom of Maffachufet Bay. 

This Town is now the mod confiderable of any on the Britifh 
Continent, containing at leaft 8,000 houfes and 40,000 Inhabit- 
ants. The Trade it drives, is very great to Europe, and to 
every Part of the Weft Indies, having near 1,000 Ships and 
lefler Veflels belonging to it. 

Altho the Extent of the Maffachufet Colony reach't near one 

Hundred and Ten Miles in Length, and half as much in Breadth, 

yet many of its Inhabitants, thinking they wanted Elbow-room, 

quitted their Old Seats in the Year 1636, and formed 2 New 

Colonies : that of Connecticut and New Haven. Thefe Kino- 


Charles the 2d erected into one Government in 1664, and gave 
them many Valuable P.riviledges, and among the reft, that of 
chufing their own Governors. The Extent of thefe united 
Colonies may be about Seventy Miles long and fifty broad. 

Befides thefe feveral Settlements, there Sprang up ftill another, 
a little more Northerly, called New Hampfhire. But that con- 
fiding of no more than two Counties, and not being; in condi- 

D ) fc> 

tion to Support the Charge of a Diftindt Government, was glad 
to be incorporated with that of Mailachufet, but upon Condition, 
however, of being Named in all Public Acts, for fear of being 
quite loft and forgot in the Coalition. 

In like manner New Plymouth joyn'd itfelf to Maffachufet, 
except only Rhode Ifland, which, tho' of fmall Extent, got itfelf 
erected into a Separate government by a Charter from Kino- 
Charles the 2d, foon after die Reiteration, and continues fo to 
this day. 

Dfoidhig Li?ie. 9 

Thcfe Governments all continued in PofTeflion of their Re- 
fpec~Vtvc Rights and Priviledges till the Year 1683, when that of 
Maffachulct was made Void in England by a Quo Warranto. 

In Confequence of which the King was pleafed to name Sir 
Edmund Andros PI is firfl Governor of that Colony. This 
Gentleman, it feems, ruled them with a Rod of Iron till the 
Revolution, when they laid unhallowed Hands upon Plim, and 
fent him Prifoner to England. 

This undutiful proceeding met with an eafy forgivenefs at tliat 
happy Juncture. King William and his Royal Contort were 
not only pleafd to overlook this Indignity offered to their Gov- 
ernor, but being made fenfible how unfairly their Charter had 
been taken away, moft gracioufly granted them a new one. 

By this fome new Franchifes were given them, as an Equiva- 
lent for thofe of Coining Money and Electing a sjovernour, which 
were taken away. Plowever, the other Colonies of Connecticut 
and Rhode Illand had the luck to remain in Pofleflion of their 
Original Charters, which to this Day have never been calld in 

The next Country difmemberd from Virginia was New Scot- 
land, claimd by the Crown of England in Virtue of the firfl: 
Diicovery by Sebaftian Cabot. By Colour of this Title, King 
James the firfl: granted it to Sir William Alexander by Patent, 
dated September the icth, 1621. 

But this Patentee never fending any Colony thither, and the 
French believing it very Convenient for them, obtaind a Surren- 
der of it from their good Friend and Ally, king Charles the 2d, 
by the Treaty of Breda. And, to fhow their gratitude, they 
ftirred up the Indians foon after to annoy their Neighbours of 
New England. Murders happend continually to his Majeftv's 
Subjects by their Means, till S r William Phipps took their Town 
of Port Royal, in the year 1690. But as the Englilh are better 
at taking than keeping Strong Places, the Fiench retook it foon, 

I o The Hiftory of the 

and remaind Matters of it till 1710, when General Nichclfon 
wretted it, once more, out of their Hands. 

Afterwards the Queen of Great Britain's Right to it was re- 
cognizd and confirmed by the treaty of Utrecht. 

Another Limb lopt off from Virginia was New York, which 
the Dutch fcized very unfairly, on pretence of having Purchafd 
it from Captain Hudfon, the firtt Difcoverer. Nor was their 
way of taking Polleihon of it a whit more juttifiable than their 
pretended Title. 

Their Weft India Company tamperd with fomc worthy Enov 
lifh Skippers (who had contracted with a Swarm of Englifh 
Diflcnters to tranfport them to Hudfon river) by no means to 
land them there, but to carry 'em fome leagues more northerly. 

This Dutch Finefle took Exactly, and gave the Company 
time foon after to feize the Hudfon River for themfelves. But 
S r Samuel Argall, then governor of Virginia, understanding how 
the King's Subjects had been abufed by thefe Republicans, 
marcht thither with a good Force, and obligd them to renounce 
all prcteniions to that Country. The worit of it was, the Knight 
depended on their Parole to Ship themfelves to Brafiie, but took 
no meafures to make this Slippery People as good as their Word. 

No fooner was the good Governor retired, but the honeft 
Dutch began to build Forts and ttrengthen themfelves in their 
ill-gotten PolTeflions ; nor did any of the King's Liege People 
take the trouble to drive thefe Intruders thence. The Civil 
War in England, And the Confuflons it brought forth, allowed 
no Leifure for fuch diftant Confiderations. Tho tis Irranee that 
the Protector, who neglected no Occafion to mortify the Dutch 
did not afterwards call them to Account for this breach of Faith. 
However, after the Rcttoraiion, the King fent a Squadron of his 
Ships of War, under the Command of fir Robert Carr, and re- 
duced that Province to his Obedience. 

Some time after, His Majcfly was Pleafd to grant that Coun- 

Dividing Line. i j 

try to his Royal Highnefs, the Duke of York, by Letters Patent, 
dated March the 12th, 1664. But to ftiew the Modefty of the 
Dutch to the Life, tho they had no Shaddow of Right to New 
York, yet they demanded Surinam, a more valuable Country, 
as an Equivalent for it, and our able Miniiters at that time had 
the Generofity to give it them. 

But what wounded Virginia deepeft was the cutting off Mary- 
land from it, by Charter from King Charles the ill, to fir 
George Calvert, afterwards Ld Baltimore, bearing Date the 20th 
of June, 1632. The Truth of it is, it begat much Speculation 
in thofe days, how it came about: that a good Prote(lant King 
mould beftow fo bountiful a Grant upon a Zealous Roman 
catholic. But 'tis probable it was one fatal Jnibmce amonaft 
many other of his Majefly's complaifance to the Queen. 

However that happened, 'tis certain this Province afterwards 
provd a Commodious Retreat for Peifons of that Communion. 
The Memory of the Gun-Powder-Treafon-Plot was Still frefh in 
every body's mind, and made England too hot for Papifb to live 
in, without danger of being burnt with the Pope, every 5th of 
November; for which reafon Legions of them transplanted them- 
• fclvcs to xMaryland in Order to be Safe, as well from the Info- 
lence of the Populace as the Rigour of the Government. 

Not only the Gun-Powder-Treafon, but every other Plot, 
both pretended and real, that has been trump't up in England 
ever Since, has helpt to People his Lordfhip's Propriety. 

But what has provd moft Serviceable to it was the Grand 
Rebellion againir. King Charles the iff, when every thing that 
bore the lean: tokens of Popery was fure to be demolifht, and 
every man that Profeft it was in Jeopardy of Suffering the fame 
kind of Martyrdom the Romifh Priefts do in Sweden. 

Soon after the Reduaion of New York, the Duke was pleafd 
to grant out of it all that Tra£t of Land included between Hud- 
fon and Delaware Rivers, to the Lord Berkley and Sir George 

1 2 T/je Hiftory of the 

Carteret, by Deed dated June the 24th, 1664. And when thefe 
Grantees came to make Partition of this Territory, His Lordp's 
Moiety was calid Weft Jerfey, and that to Sir George, Eaft 

But before the Date of this Grant, the Swedes began to gain 
Footing in part of that Country ; tho, after they faw the Fate 
of New York, they were glad to Submit to the King of England, 
on the eafy Terms of remaining in their Poiieflions, and render- 
ing a Moderate Quit-rent. Their Poftcrity continue there to 
this Day, and think their Lot cafl in a much fairer Land than 

The Proprietors of New Jerfey, finding more Trouble than 
Profit in their new Dominions, made over their Right to feveral 
other Perfons, who obtaind a frefli Grant from his Royal High- 
nefs, dated March the 14th, 1682. 

Several of the Grantees, being Quakers and Anabaptifts, faild 
not to encourage many of their own Perfwafion to remove to 
this Peaceful Region. Amongft them were a Swarm of Scots 
Quakers, who were not tolerated to exercife the Gifts of the 
Spirit in their own Country. 

Befides the hopes of being Safe from Perfecution in this Re- 
treat, the New Proprietors inveigled many over by this tempting 
Account of the Country : that it was a Place free from thofe 3 
great Scourges of Mankind, Prieifs, Lawyers, and Phyficians. 
Nor did they tell a Word of a Lye, for the People were yet too 
poor to maintain thefe Learned Gentlemen, who, every where, 
love to be paid well for what they do ; and, like the Jews, cant 
breathe in a Climate where nothing is to be got. 

The Jerfeys continued under the Government of thefe Pro- 
prietors till the Year 1702, when the)- made a formal Surrender 
of the Dominion to the .Queen, referving however the Property' 
of the Soil to thcmfclvcs. So foon as the Bounds of New Jer- 
fey came to be diltinctly laid off, it appeared that there was ftill 

Dividing Line. j^ 

a Narrow Sllpe of Land, lying betwixt that Colony and Mary- 
land. Of this, William Penn, a Alan of much Worldly Wifdom, 
and fome Eminence among the Quakers, got early Notice, and 
by the Credit he had with the Duke of York, obtaind a Patent 
for it, Dated March the 4th, 1680. 

It was a little Surprifing to fome People how a Quaker fhoud 
be fo much in the good Graces of a Popifh Prince ; tho, after 
all, it may be pretty well Accounted for. This Ingenious Pcr- 
fon had not been bred a Quaker ; but, in his Earlier days, had 
been a Man of Pleafure about the Town. He had a beautiful 
form and very taking Addrefs, which made him Succefsful with 
the Ladies, and particularly with a Miftrefs of the Duke of 
Monmouth. By this Gentlewoman he had a Daughter, who 
had Beauty enough to raife her to be a Dutchefs, and continued 
to be a Toavt full 30 Years. 

But this Amour had like to have brought our Fine Gentleman 
in Danger of a Duell, had he not difcreetly iheltcrd himfelf 
under this peaceable Perfwafion. Befides, his Pother having 
been a Elag-Omcer in the Navy, while the Duke of York was 
Lord High Admiral, might recommend the Son to his Favour. 
This piece of Secret Hiftory I thought proper to mention, to 
wipe off the Sufpicion of his having been Popifhly inclind. 

This Gentleman's nrft Grant confind Him within pretty 
Narrow Bounds, giving him only that Portion of Land which 
contains Buckingham, Philadelphia and Chefter Counties. But 
to get thefc Bounds a little extended, He puflu His Intereft frill 
further with His Royal Highnefs, and obtaind a frefh Grant of 
the three Lower Counties, called New-Caille, Kent and Suflcx, 
which (till remaind within the New York Patent, and had been 
luckily left out of the Grant of New Jcrfey. 

The Six Counties being thus incorporated, the Proprietor 
dignifyd the whole with the Name of Penlilvania. 

The Quakers flockt over to this Country in Shoals, being 

14 The Hiftory of the 

averfe to go to Heaven the fame way with the Bifhops. Amongft 
them were not a few of good Subftanee, who went Vigorously 
upon every kind of Improvement; and thus much I may truly 
lay in their Praife, that by Diligence and Frugality, For which 
this Harmlcfs Sect is remarkable, and by haveing no Vices but 
fuch as are Private, they have in a few Years made Penfilvania 
a very fine Country. 

The Truth is, they have obferved exact Juflice with all the 
Natives that border upon them ; they have purchafd all their 
Lands from the Indians ; and tho they, paid but a Triffie for 
them, it has procured them the Credit of being more righteous 
than their Neighbours. They have likewife had the Prudence 
to treat them kindly upon all Occafions, which has favd them 
from many Wars and Maffacres wherein the other Colonies 
have been indifcreetly involved. The truth of it is, a People 
whole Principles forbid them to draw the Carnal Sword, were 
in the Right to give no Provocation. 

Both the French and Spaniards had, in the Name of their 
Refpective Monarchs, long ago taken PofleJiion of that Part of 
the Northern Continent that now goes by the Name of Caro- 
lina ; but finding it Produced neither Gold nor Silver, as they 
greedily expected, and meeting fuch returns from the Indians as 
their own Cruelty and Treachery deferved, they totally aban- 
dond it. In this deferted Condition that country lay for the 
Space of 90 Years, till King Charles the 2d, finding it a dere- 
lict, granted it away to the Earl of Clarendon and others, by 
His Royal Charter, dated March the 24th, 1663. The Bound- 
ary of that Grant towards Virginia was a due Weft Line from 
Luck-Ifland, (the fame as Colleton Ifiand,) lying in 36 degrees 
N. Latitude, quite to the South Sea. 

But afterwards Sir William Berkeley, who was one of the 
Grantees and at that time Governour of Virginia, finding a Terri- 
tory of 3 1 Miles in Breadth between the Inhabited Part of Virginia 

Dividing Line. 1 5 

and the above-mentioned Boundary of Carolina, advifd the Lord 
Clarendon of it. And His Lordp had Intereft enough with the 
King to obtain a Second Patent to include it, dated June the 
30th, 1665. 

This laft Grant defcribes the Bounds between Virginia and 
Carolina in thefe Words : " To run from the North End of 
Corotuck-Inlet, due Weft to Weyanoke Creek, lying within or 
about the Degree of Thirty-Six and Thirty Minutes of North- 
ern Latitude, and from thence Weil, in a direct Line, as far as 
the South-Sea." Without queilion, this Boundary was well 
known at the time the Charter was Granted, but in a long Courfe 
of years Weynoke Creek loft its name, fo that it became a 
Controvert where it lay. Some Ancient Perfons in Virginia 
affirmd it was the fame with Wicocon, and others again in Caro- 
lina were as Pofitive it was Nottoway River. 

In the mean time, the People on the Frontiers Enterd for 
Land, & took out Patents by Guefs, either from the King or 
the Lords Proprietors. But the Crown was like to be the 
Infer by this Incertainty, becaufe the Terms both of taking up 
and feating Land were eafier much in Carolina. The Yearly 
Taxes to the Public were likewife there lefs burthenfome, which 
laid Virginia under a Plain difadvantage. 

This Confideration put that Government upon entering into 
Meafures with North Carolina, to terminate the Difpute, and 
fettle a Certain Boundary between the two colonies. All the 
Difficulty- was, to find out which was truly Weyanoke Creek. 
The Difference was too Confiderable to be given up by either 
fide, there being a Territory of 15 Miles betwixt the two Streams 
in controverfy. 

However, till that Matter could be adjufted, it was agreed on 
both fides, that no Lands at all Should be granted within the 
difputed Bounds. Virginia obferved this Agreement punctually, 
but I am ibrry I cant fay the Same of North-Carolina. The 

1 6 Yhe Hifiory of the 

great Officers of that Province were loath to lofe the Fees ac- 
crueing from the Grants of Land, and fo private Intereft got the 
better of Public Spirit ; and I wifli that were the only Place in 
the World where fuch politicks are fafhionable. 

All the Steps that were taken afterwards in that Affair, will 
beft appear by the Report of the Virginia-Commifiioners, recited 
in the Order of Council given at St. James's, March the ift, 
1 7 io, fet down in the Appendix. 

It mult be owned, the Report of thofe Gentlemen was Severe 
upon the then commifiioners of North-Carolina, and particularly 
upon Mr. Mofeley. I wont take upon me to fay with how 
much Juftice they faid fo many hard things, tho it had been 
fairer Play to have given the Parties accufd a Copy of fuch 
Reprefentation, that they might have anfwerd what they could 
for themfelves. 

But fince that was not done, I muft beg leave to fay thus 
much in behalf of Mr. Mofeley, that he was not much in the 
Wrong to find fault with the Quadrant produced by the Sur- 
veyors of Virginia, becaufe that Inftrument plact the Mouth of 
Notoway River in the Latitude of 37 Degrees ; whereas, by an 
Accurate Obftrvation made Since, it appears to lie in 36° 30' i', 
fo that there was an Error of near 30 minutes, either in the In- 
ftrument or in thofc who made ufe of it. 

Befides, it is evident the Mouth of Notoway River agrees 
much better with the Latitude, wherein the Carolina Charter 
fuppofed Wyanoak Creek, (namely, in or about 36 Degrees 
and 30 minutes,) than it does with Wicocon Creek, which is 
about 15 Miles more Southerly. 

This being manifeft, the Intention of the King's Grant will 
be pretty exactly anfwerd, by a due Weft Line drawn from 
Corotuck Inlet to the Mouth of Notaway River, for which 
reafon tis probable that was formerly calld Wyanoak-Creek, and 
might change its Name when the Nottoway Indians came to 

Dividing Line. 17 


live upon it, which was fince the Date of the laft Carolina 


The Lievt Governor of Virginia, at that time Colo Spotf- 
wood, teaching into the Bottom of this Affair, made very 
Equitable Propofals to Mr. Eden, at that time Govemour of 
North Carolina, in Order to put an End to this Controverfy.. % 
Thefe, being formd into Preliminaries, were Signd by both 
Governours, and tranfmitted to England, where they had the 
Honour to be ratifyed by his late Majefty and AiTcntcd to by the 
Lords Proprietors of Carolina. 

Accordingly an Order was fent by the late King to Air. 
Gooch, afterwards Lievt Governor of Virginia, to purfue thofe 
Preliminarys exadly. In Obedience thereunto, he was pleafed 
to appoint Three of the Council of that colony to be Commif- 
fioners on the Part of Virginia, who, in Conjunction with others 
to be named by the Governor of North Carolina, were to fettle 
the Boundary between the 2 Governments, upon the Plan of 
the above-mentiond Articles. 

Two Experienct Surveyors were at the fame time directed to 
wait upon the Commiflioners, Mr. Mayo, who made the Accu- 
rate Mapp of Barbadoes, and Mr. Irvin, the Mathematick 
ProfeiTor of William and Mary Colledge. And becaufe a good 
Number of Men were to go upon this Expedition, a Chaplain 
was appointed to attend them, and the rather becaufe the People 
on the Frontiers of North-Carolina, who have no Miniiler near 
them, might have an Opportunity to get themfelves and their 
Children baptizd. 

Of thefe proceedings on our Part, immediate Notice was fent 172S 
to Sir Richard Everard, Governor of North Carolina, who was Fcbmar 
dcfircd to Name Commiflioners for that Province, to meet thofe 
of Virginia at Crotuck-Inlet the Spring following. Accordingly 
lie appointed Four Members of the Council of that Province to 
take Care of the Interefts of the Lds Proprietors. ' Of thefe, 

1 8 The IJiflory of the 

1728 Mr. Mofeley was to fervc in a Double Capacity, both as Com- 

February m iffi ncr anc j Surveyor. For that reafbn there was but one 

other Surveyor from thence, Mr. Swan. All the Perfons being 

thus agreed upon, they fettled the time of Meeting to be at Co- 

rotuck, March the 5th, 1728. 

In the Mean time, the requifite Preparations were made for fo 
long and tirefome a Journey ; and becauie there was much work 
to be done and fome Danger from the Indians, in the uninhabited 
Part of the Country, it was ncceflary to provide a Competent 
Number of Men. Accordingly, Seventeen able Hands were 
lifted on the Part of Virginia, who were moll of them Indian 
Traders and expert Woodfmen. 

27 Thefc good men were ordered to come armed with a Mufquet 
and a Tomahack, or large Hatchet, and provided with a Suffi- 
cient Quantity of Ammunition. 

They likewife brought Provifions of their own for ten days 
after which time they were to be furnifht by the Government. 
Their March was appointed to be on the 27th of February on 
which day one of the Commiilioners met them at their Rendez- 
vous, and proceeded with them as far as Colo Allen's. This 
Gentleman is a great ceconomift, and Skilld in all the Arts of 
living well at an cafy expenfe. 

2 g They proceeded in good Order through Surry County, as far 
as the Widdow Allen's who had copied Solomon's complete 
houfewife exactly. At this Gentlewoman's Houfe, the other 
two Commiilioners had appointed to join them, but were de- 
taind by fome Accident at Williamfburg, longer than their ap- 

2q They purfued their march thro the Ifle of Wight and obfervd 
a molt dreadful Havock made by a late Hurricane, which hap- 
pend in Auguft, 1726. The Violence of it had not reachd 
above a Quarter of a Mile in Breadth, but within that Compafs 
had levelkl'all before it. Both Trees and Houfes were laid flat 

Dividing Line. 1 9 

on the Ground, and feveral things hurld to an incredible diftance. 1728 

Tis happy fuch violent Gulls are confind to fo narrow a Chan- February 

nel, becaufe they carry defolation wherever they go. In the v 

Evening they reacht Mr. Godwin's, on the South Branch of 

Nanfemond River, where they were treated with abundance of 

Primitive Hofpitality. 

March 1. This Gentleman was fo kind as to morten their w , 

Journey, by fetting thorn over the river. They coaflcd the 

N E Side of the Difmal for feveral miles together, and found all 
the Grounds bordering upon it very full of Sloughs. The Trees 
that grew near it lookt very Reverend, with the long Mofs that 
hung dangling from their Branches. Both cattle and Horfes cat 
this Mofs greedily in Winter when other Provender is Scarce, 
tho it is apt to fcowr them at firft. In that moifl Soil too grew 
abundance of that kind of Myrtle which bears the Candle- 
Berries. There was likewife, here and there, a Gall-bufh, 
which is a beautiful Evergreen, and may be cut into any Shape. 
It derives its name from its Berries turning Water black, like 
the Galls of an oak. 

When this Shrub is tranfplanted into Gardens, it will not 
thrive without frequent watering. 

The two other commimoners came up with them jufl: at their 
Journey's end, and that evening they arrivd all together at Mr. 
Craford's, who lives on the South Branch of Elizabeth-River, 
over againfl: Norfolk. Here the CommifTioners left the Men 
with all the Horfes and heavy Baggage, and croflt the River 
with their Servants only, for fear of making a Famine in the 

Norfolk has moft the ayr of a Town of any in Virginia. There 
were then near 20 Brigantlnes and Sloops riding at the Wharves, 
and oftentimes they have more. It has all the advantages of 
Situation requiiite for Trad^ and Navigation. There is a Secure 
Harbour for a good Number of Ships of any Burthen. Their 

20 ¥he Hi/lory of the 

I - 2 3 River divides itfelf into 3 Several Branches, which are all 
March Navigable. The Town is fo near the fea, that its Veffels may 

v <^ Sail in and out in a few Hours. Their Trade is Chiefly to the 

Weft-Indies, whither they export abundance of Beef, Pork, 
Flour and Lumber. The worft of it is, they contribute much 
towards debauching the Country by importing abundance of 
Rum, which, like Ginn in Great Britain, breaks the Conftitu- 
tion, Vitiates the Morals, and ruins the Induftry of moft of the 
Poor people of this Country. 

This Place is the Mart for moft of the Commodities producd 
in the Adjacent Parts of North Carolina. They have a pretty 
deal of Lumber from the Borderers on the Difmal, who make 
bold with the King's Land there abouts, without the lead Cere- 
mony. They not only maintain their Stocks upon it, but get 
Boards, Shingles and other Lumber out of it in great Abundance. 
The Town is built on a level Spot of Ground upon Elizabeth 
River, the Banks whereof are neither fo high as to make the 
landing of Goods troublefome, or fo low as to be in Danger of 
• overflowing. The Streets are Straight, and adornd with feveral 
Good Iloufes, which Encreafe every Day. It is not a Town 
of Ordinarys and Publick Houfes, like moft others in this Coun- 
try, but the Inhabitants confifl of Merchants, Ship-Carpenters 
and other ufeful Artifans, with Sailors enough to manage their 
Navigation. With all thefe Conveniences, it lies under the two 
great difadvantages that moft of the Towns in Holland do, by 
having neither good Air nor good Water. The two Cardinal 
Vermes that make a Place thrive, Induftry and Frugality, are 
feen here in Perfection ; and fo long as they can baniih Luxury 
and Idleneis, the Town will remain in a happy and flourifhing 

The Method of building Wharfrs here is after the following 
Manner. They lay down long Pine Logs, that reach from the 
Shore to the Edge of the Channel. Thefe are bound fail to- 

Dividing Line. 2 1 

getlier by Crofl-Pieces notcht into them, according to the Archi- 1728 
te&ure of the Log-Houfes in North Carolina. A vvharfF built March 
thus will ft and Several Years, in fpight of the Worm, which ~~ v ~* 
bites here very much, but may be foon repaird in a Place where 
fo many Pines grow in the Neighbourhood. 

The Commillioners endeavourd, in this Town, to lift Three 
more men to ferve as Guides in that dirty Part of the Country, 
but found that thefe People knew juft enough of that frightful 
Place to avoid it. 

They had been told that thofe Netherlands were full of Bogs, 
of Marfhes and Swamps, not fit for Human Creatures to engage 
in, and this was Reafon enough for them not to hazard their 
Perfons. So they told us, flat and plain, that we might een dag- 
gle thro the mire by Our-Selves for them. 

The worft of it was, we coud not learn from any body in this 
Town, what Rout to take to Coratuck Inlet ; till at laft we had 
the fortune to meet with a Borderer upon North Carolina, who 
made a rough Sketch of that Part of the Country. Thus, upon 
feeing how the Land lay, we determind to march directly to 
Prefcot Landing upon N W River, and proceed from thence 
by Water to the Place where our Line was to begin. 

In Purfuance of this Refolution we crofit the River this Morn- 4th 
ing to Powder-Point, where we all took Horfe ; and the Grandees 
of the Town, with great Courtefy, conducted us Ten Miles on 
our way, as far as the long Bridge built over the S Branch of 
the River. The Parfon of the Parifli, Mr. Marfton, a painful 
Apoftle from the Society, made one in this Ceremonious Caval- 

At the Bridge, thefe Gentlemen, wifhing us a good Deliver- 
ance, returnd, and then a Troop of Light Horfe efcorted us as 
far as Prefcot-Landing, upon N W river. Care had been taken 
beforehand to provide 2 Pcriaugas to lie ready at that Place to 
tranfport us to Coratuck Inlet. Our Zeal was fo great to get 

22 The Hijhry of the 

1728 thither at the time time appointed, that we hardly allowd our- 
March felves leifure to eat, which in truth we had the lefs Stomach to, 

°~~ v '~~^ by rcafon the dinner was ferved up by the Landlord, whofe Nofe 
flood on fiich ticklifh Terms, that it was in Danper of falling 
into the Difh. We therefore made our Repaft very fhort, and 
then embarkt with only the Surveyors and Nine chofen Men, 

leaving the reft at Mr. W n's to take Care of the Horfes 

and Baggage. There we alfo left our Chaplain, with the Char- 
itable Intent, that the Gentiles round about might have time and 
Opportunity, if they pleafd, of getting themfelvcs and their 
children baptizd. 

We rowd down N W River about 18 miles, as far as the 
Mouth of it, where it empties itfelf into Albermarle Sound. It 
was a really Delightful Sight, all the way, to fee the Banks of 
the River adornd with Myrtle, Laurel and Bay Trees, which 
prefervc their Verdure the Year round, tho it muft be ovvnd 
that thefe beautiful Plants, Sacred to Venus and Apollo, 
grow commonly in a very dirty Soil. The PJver is, in moft 
Places, fifty or Sixty Yards wide, without fpreading much wider 
at the Mouth. Tis remarkable it was never known to Ebb and 
flow till the year 17 13, when a Violent Storm opend a new In- 
let, about 5 Miles South of the old one ; fince which Convulfion, 
the Old Inlet is almoft choakd up by the Shifting of the Sand, 
and grows both Narrower and Shoaller every day. 

It was dark before we could reach the Mouth of the River, 
where our wayward Stars directed us to a Miferable Cottage. 
The Landlord was lately removed, Bag and Baegao-e, from 
Maryland, thro a Strong Antipathy he had to work and paying 
his Debts. For want of our Tent, we were obligd to Shelter 
our Selves in this wretched Hovel, where we were almoft de- 
vourd by Vermin of Various kinds. However, we were above 
complaining, being all Philofophers enough to improve fuch 
Slender DiilrcrTes into Mirth and good Humour. 

Dividing Line. 23 

<$. The Day being now come, on which we had agreed to 1728 
meet the Commiilioners of North Carolina, we embarkd very March 
early, which we coud the eaiier do, having no Temptation to sr ~~^ 
ftay where we were. We Shapt our Courfe along the South 
End of Knot's Ifland, there being no Pafiage opeji on the 

Farther Still to the Southward of us, we difcoverd two Smaller 
Iflands, that go by the names of Bell's and Churche's Ifles. 
We alfo faw a fmall New England Sloop riding in the Sound, a 
little to the South of our Courfe. She had come in at the New- 
Inlet, as all other Veffels have done fince the opening of it. 
This Navigation is a little difficult, and fit only for Veffels that 
draw no more than ten feet Water, 

The Trade hither is engroflt by the Saints of New England, 
who carry off a great deal of Tobacco, without troubling them- 
felves with paying that Impertinent Duty of a Penny a Pound. 

It was juft Noon before we arrivd at Coratuck Inlet, which 
is now fo mallow that the Breakers fly over it with a horrible 
Sound, and at the fame time afford a very wild Profpect. On 
the North fide of the Inlet, che High Land terminated in a Bluff 
Point, from which a Spit of Sand extended itfelf towards tht 
South-Eaft, full half a Mile. The Inlet lies between that Spit 
and another on the South of it, leaving an Opening of not quite 
a Mile, which at this day is not practicable for any Veflel what- 
foever. And as fhallow as it now is, it continues to fill up more 
and more, both the Wind and Waves rolling in the Sands from 
the Ealtern Shoals. 

About two a Clock in the Afternoon we v/erc joind by two 
of the Carolina Commiilioners, attended by Mr. S — n, their 
Surveyor. The other two were not quite fo punctual, which 
was the more unlucky for us, becaufe there could be no fport 
till they came. Thefe Gentlemen, it Ceems, had the Carolina- 
Commifiion in their keeping, notwithstanding which they coud 

24 The HiJIory of the 

1728 not forbear paying too much regard to a Proverb — fafhionable 
March j n tner Country, — not to make more haft than good Speed. 

However, that we who were punctual might not fpend our 
precious time unprofitably, we took the Several bearings of the 
Coait. We alfo furveyd part of the Adjacent High Land, which 
had fcarccly any Trees growing upon it, but Cedars. Among 
the Shrubs, we were fhewed here and there a Bufh of Carolina- 
Tea calld Japon, which is one Species of the Phylarrea. This 
is an Evergreen, the Leavs whereof have fome refemblance to 
Tea, but differ very widely both in Taft and Flavour. 

We alfo found fome few Plants of the Spired Leaf Silk grafs, 
which is likewife an Evergreen, bearing on a lofty Stemm a large 
Clufter of Flowers of a Pale Yellow. Of the Leaves of this 
Plant the People thereabouts twift very ftrong Cordage. 

A vertuofo might divert himfelf here very well, in picking up 
Shells of various Hue and Figure, and amongft the reft, that 
Species of Conque Shell which the Indian Peak is made of. 
The Extremities of thefe Shells are Blue and the reft white, fo 
that Peak of both thefe Colours are drilld out of one and the 
fame Shell, Serving the Natives both for Ornament and Money, 
and are efteemd by them far beyond Gold and Silver. 

The Cedars were of Singular ufe to us in the Abfence of our 
Tent, which we had left with the reft of the Baggage for fear 
of overloading the Periaugas. We made a Circular Hedge of 
the Branches of this Tree, Wrought (o clofe together as to 
fence us againft the Cold Winds. We then kindled a roufeino- 
fire in the Center of it, and lay round it, like fo many Itnights 
Templars. But, as comfortable as this Lodging was, the Sur- 
veyors turnd out about 2 in the Morning to try the Variation bv 
a Meridian taken from the North Star, and found it to be fome- 
what lefs than three degrees Weft. 

The Commiflioners of the Neighbouring Colony came better 
provided for the Belly than the Builnefs. Thev brought not 

■Dividing Line. 25 

above two men along with them that would put their Hands to 17 28 
any thing but the Kettle and the Frymg-Pan. Thefe fpent fo ^_^J, 
much of their Induftry that way, that they had as little Spirit as 
Inclination for Work. 

At N oon, having a Perfect Obfervation, we found the Lati- 6 
tude of Coratuck Inlet to be 36 Degrees and 31 Minutes. 

Whilft we were bufied about thefe Necefiary Matters, our 
Skipper row'd to an Oyfter Bank juft by, and loaded his Periauga 
with Oyftcrs as Savoury and weli-tafted as thofe from Colchef- 
ter or Walfteet, and had the advantage of them, too, by being 
much larger and fatter. 

About 3 in the Afternoon the two lagg Commiflloners arriv'd, 
and after a few decent excufes for making us waic, told us 
they were ready to enter upon Bufinefs as foon as we pleal'd. 
The firft Step was to produce our reipeclive Powers, and the 
Commiflion from each Governor was diftin&ly read, and Copies 
of them interchangeably deliver'd. 

It was obferv'd by our Carolina Friends, that the Latter Part 
of the Virginia Commiflion had fomething in it a little too lordly 
and Pofitive. In anfwer to which we told them twas neceilary 
to make it thus peremptory, left the prefent Commifiloners 
might go upon as fruitleis an Errand as their Predeceflbrs. The 
former Commifiloners were ty'd down to Act in Exact Con- 
junction with thofe of Carolina, and fo could not advance one 
Step farther, or one Jot fafter, than they were pleaf'd to permit 


The Memory of that difappointment, therefore, indue'd the 
Government of Virginia to give fuller Powers to the prefent 
Commiflloners, bv Authorizing them to go on with the Work 
by Themfelves, in Cafe thofe of Corolina fhould prove unrea- 
fonablc, and refufe to join with them in carrying the bufinefs to 
Execution. And all this was done left His Majefty's gracious 
Intention flioud be fruftrated a Second time. 

26 Tbi Hi/lory of the 

1728 After both Commiflions were confiderd, the fir ft Oueftion 
March waS) w here the Dividing Line was to begin. This begat a 
v ""~~"'' ' Warm debate \ the Virginia Commiflioners contending, with a 
great deal of Reafon, to begin at the End of the Spitt of Sand, 
which was undoubtedly the North Shore of Coratuck Inlet. 
But thofe of Carolina infifted Strenuouly, that the Point of High 
Land ought rather to be the Place of Beginning, becaufe that 
was hxt and certain, whereas the Spitt of Sand was ever Shift- 
ing, and did actually run out farther now than formerly. The 
Conteft lafted fomc Hours, with great Vehemence, neither Party 
receding from their Opinion that Night. But next Morning, 

Mr. M , to convince us he was not that Obflinate 

Perfon he had been reprefented, yielded to our Reafons, and 
found Means to bring over his Collegues. 

Here we began already to reap the Benefit of thofe Peremptory 
Words in our Commiflion, which in truth added fome Weight 
to our Reafons. Nevertheless, becaufe pofitive proof was made 
by the Oaths of two Credible Witneffes, that the Spitt of Sand 
had advancd 2CO Yards towards the Inlet fince the Controvert)- 
firft began, we were willing for Peace-fake to make them that 
allowance. Accordingly we fixed our Beginning about that 
Diftance North of the Inlet, and there Ordered a Cedar-Poft 
to be driven deep into the Sand for our beginning. While we 
continued here, we were told that on the South Shore, not far 
.from the Inlet, dwelt a Marooner, that Modeitly call'd himfelfa 
Hermit, tho' he forfeited that Name by Suffering a wanton 
Female to cohabit with Him. 

His Habitation was a Bower, cover' d with Bark after the Indian 
Fafhion, which in that mild Situation protected him pretty well 
from the Weather. Like the Ravens, he neither plow'd nor 
fow'd, but Subfifted chiefly upon Oyfters, which his Handmaid 
made a Shift to gather from the Adjacent Rocks. Sometimes, 
too, for Change of Dyet, he fent her to drive up the Neighbour's 

Dividing Line. 27 

Cows, to moiften their Mouths with a little Milk. But as for 1728 

AT .1 

raiment, he depended moftly upon his Length of Beard, and iVlarcl - 
She upon her Length of Hair, part of which fhe brought de- 
cently forward, and the reft dangled behind quite down to her 
Rump, like one of Herodotus's Eaft Indian Pigmies. 

Thus did thefe Wretches live in a dirty State of Nature, and 
were mere Adamites, Innocence only excepted. 

This Morning the Surveyors began to run the Dividing line 7 
from the Cedar-Poft we' had driven into the Sand, allowing near 
3 Degrees for the Variation. Without making this Juft allow- 
ance, we fhould not have obeyd his Majefty's order in running a 
Due Weft Line. It feems the former Commiffioners had not 
been fo exact, which gave our Friends of Carolina but too juft 
an Exception to their Proceedings. 

The Line cut Dofier's Ifland, confifting only of a Flat Sand, 
with here and there an humble Shrub growing upon it. From 
thence it croft over a narrow Arm of the Sound into Knot's 
Ifland, and there Split a Plantation belonging to William Hard- 

The Day being far fpent, we encampt in this Man's Pafture, 
tho' it lay very low, and the Seafon now inclin'd People to Aguilh 
Diftempers. He fufferd us to cut Cedar-Branches for our En- 
clofure, and other Wood for Firing, to correct the moift Air 
and drive away the Damps. Our Landlady, in the Days of her 
Youth, it feems, had been a Laundrefs in the Temple, and talkt 
over her Adventures in that Station, with as much pleafure as 
an Old Soldier talks over his Battles and Diftempers, and I be- 
lieve with as many Additions to the Truth. 

The Soil is good in many Places of this Ifland, and the Ex- 
tent of it pretty large. It lyes in the form of a Wedge : the 
South End of it is Several Miles over, but towards the North it 
Sharpens into a Point. It is a Plentiful Place for Stock, by 
reafon of the wide Marfhes adjacent to it, and becaufe of its 

28 The Hiftory of the 

1728 v/arm Situation. But the Inhabitants pay a little dear for this 
March Convenience, by lofing as much Blood in the Summer Seafon 
v — ♦ — • by the infinite Number of Mofquetas, as all their Beef and Pork 
can recruit in the Winter. 

The Sheep are as large as in Lincolnfhire, becaufe they are 
never pincht by cold or Hunger. The whole Ifland was hitherto 
reckon'd to lye in Virginia, but now our Line has given the 
greater Part of it to Carolina. The Principal Freeholder here 
is Mr. White, who keeps open Houfe for all Travellers, that 
either Debt or Shipwreck happens to call in his way. 
8 By break of Day we fent away our Largeft Periauga, with the 
Baggage, round the South end of Knot's Ifland, with Orders to 
the Men to wait for us in the Mouth of North River. Soon 
after, we embarkt ourfelves on board the fmaller Veflfel, with 
Intent, if poffible, to find a Paflage round the North End of the 

We found this Navigation very difficult, by reafon of the 
Continued Shoals, and often ftuck faft aground ; for tho' the 
Sound fprcads many miles, yet it is in mo ft places extremely 
Shallow, and requires a Skilful Pilot to Steer even a Canoe fafe 
over it. It was almoft as hard to keep our Temper as to keep 
the Channel, in this provoking Situation. But the moft impa- 
tient amongft us ftrokt down their Ch'oler and fwallow'd their 
curfes, left, if they fuffer'd them to break out, they might found 
like Complaining, which was expreffly forbid, as the firft Step 
to Sedition. 

At a diftance we defcry'd Several Iflands to the Northward of 
us, the largeft of which goes by the Name of Cedar Ifland. 
Our periauga ftuck fo often that we had a fair chance to be be- 
nighted in this wide Water, which muft certainly have been our 
Fate, had we not luckily fpied a Canoe that was giving a Fortune- 
teller a caft from Princefs Anne County over to North Carolina. 
But, as conjurers are Sometimes miftaken, the Man miftrufted 

Dividing Line. 29 

we were Officers of Juftice in purfuit of a Young Wench he 1728 
had earry'd off along with him. We gave the Canoe Chafe March 
for more than an Flour and when we came up with her, threat- 
end to make them all prilbners unlefs they would dired us into 
the right Channel. 

By the Pilotage of thefe People we row'd up an Arm of the 
Sound, call'd the Back-Bay, till we came to the Head of it. 
There we were ftoppt by a miry Pocofon full half a Mile in 
Breadth, thro' which we were oblig'd to daggle on foot, plunge- 
ing now and then, tho' we pickt our Way, up to the Knees in 
Mud. At the End of this Charming walk we gain'd the Terra 
Fiima of Princefs Anne County. In that Dirty Condition we 
were afterwards oblig'd to foot it two Miles, as far as John 
Heath's Plantation, where we expected to meet the Surveyors 
h the men who waited upon them. 

While we were performing this tedious Voyage, they had 
carried the Line thro' the firm Land of Knot's Ifland, where it 
was no more than half a Mile wide. After that they traverf'd 
a large Marfh, that was exceeding Miry, and extended to an 
Arm of the Back Bay. They crollt that water in a Canoe, 
which we had order'd round for that Purpofe, and then waded 
over another Marfh, that reacht quite to the High Land of 
of Princefs Anne. Both thefe Marfhes together make a breadth 
of five Miles, in which the Men frequently funk up to the 
Middle without muttering the leaft complaint. On the con- 
trary, they turn'd all thefe Difaflers into Merriment. 

It was difcover'd, by this day's Work, that Knot's Ifland was 
improperlv fo call'd, being in Truth no more than a Peninfula. 
The N W Side of it is only divided from the Main by the great 
Marfh above-mentioned, which is feldom totally overflow'd. 
Inftcad of that, it might, by the Labour of a k\v Trenches, be 
drain' d into firm Meadow, capable of grazing as many cattle as 
Job, in his beft Eflatc, was matter of. In the Miry Condition 

30 The Ilijlory of the 

1728 it now lies, it feeds great Numbers in the Winter, tho', when 
March t Jj e Weather grows warm, they are driven from thence by the 
Mighty Armies of Mofquetas, which are the Plague of the lower 
Part of Carolina, as much as the Flies were formerly of E^ypt, 
and fome Rabbis think thofe Flies were no other than Muf- 

All the People in the Neighbourhood flockt to John Heath's, 
to behold fuch Rarities as they fancied us to be. The Men left 
their bclov'd Chimney Corners, the good women their Spinning 
Wheels, and fome, of more Curiofity than Ordinary, rofe out 
of their fick Beds, to come and flare at us. They lookt upon 
us as a Troop of Knight Errants, who were running this °reat 
Rifque of our Lives, as they imagin'd, for the Publick Weal 5 
and fome of the graved 01 them queftion'd much whether we 
were not all Criminals, condemned to this dirty work for 
Offences againft the State. 

What puzzled them moft was, what cou'd make our men fo 
very Light-hearted under fuch intolerable Drudgery. " Ye 
have little reafon to be merry, My Matters," laid one of them, 
with a very folemn Face, " I fancy the Pocofon you muft 
Struggle with to-morrow will make you change your Note, and 
try what Metal you are made of. Ye are, to be fure, the firft 
of Human Race that ever had the Boldnefs to attempt it, and I 
dare fay will be the laft. If, therefore, you have any Worldly 
Goods to difpofe of, My Advice is that you make your Wills 
this very Night, for fear you die Inteftate to-Morrow." But, 
alas! thefe frightfull Tales were fo far from difheartening the 
men, that they ferv'd only to whet their Refolution. 
g The Surveyors enter'd Early upon their Bufinefs this Morn- 
ing, and ran the Line thro' Mr. Eyland's Plantation, as far as 
the Banks of North River. They paflt over it in the Periauga 
and landed in Gibbs' Marfh, which was a mile in Breadth and 
tolerably firm. They trudg'd thro' this Marfh without much 

Dividing Line. 31 

difficulty as far as the High Land, which promif'd more Fer- 1728 
tility than any thev had feen in thefe lower Parts. But this firm larcn 
Land lafted not long before they came upon the dreadful Poco- 
fon they had been threaten'd with. Nor did they find it one Jot 
better than it had been painted to them. The Beavers and 
Otters had render'd it quite impafiable for any Creature but 

Our poor Fellows had much ado to drag their Legs after 
them in this Quagmire, but difdaining to be baulkt, they cou'd 
hardly be perfuaded from prefiing forward bv the Surveyors, who 
found it abfolutely Necefiarv to make a Traverfe in the Deepeft 
Place, to prevent their Sticking fart in the Mire, and becoming 
a Certain Prey to the Turkey-Buzzards. 

This Horrible Day's Work Ended two Miles to the North- 
ward of Air. Merchant's Plantation, divided from NW River 
by a Narrow Swamp, which is caufeway'd over. We took up 
our Quarters in the open Field, not far from the Houfe, cor- 
correcTting, by a Fire as large as a Roman-Funeral-Pile, the 
Aguifli Exhalations arifing from the Sunken Grounds that Sur- 
rounded us. 

The Neck of Land included betwixt N River and N-Weft 
River, with the adjacent Marfli, belong'd formerly to Governor 
Gibbs, but fince his Deceafe to Colonel Bladen, in right of his 
fir ft Lady, who was Mr, Gibbs' Daughter. It would be a 
Valuable Tract, of Land in any Country but North Carolina, 
where, for want of Navigation and Commerce, the beft Eftate 
affords little more than a coarfe Subfiftence. 

The Sabbath happen'd very opportunely to give fome eafe to 10 
our jaded People, who refted religioufly from every work, but 
that of cooking the Kettle. We obferved very few corn-fields 
in our Walks, and thofe very fmall, which feem'd the Stranger 
to us, becaufe we could fee no other Tokens of Hufbandrv or 
Improvement. But, upon further Inquiry, we were given to 

32 The Hiflory of the 

"1728 underftand People only made Corn for themfelves and not for 
March their Stocks, which know very well how to get their own 
^~~ >r ~~^ Living. 

Both Cattle and Hogs ramble in the Neighbouring Marfhes 
and Swamps, where they maintain themfelves the whole Winter 
long, and are not fetch'd home till the Spring. Thus thefe 
Indolent Wretches, during one half of the Year, lofe the Ad- 
vantage of the Milk of their cattle, as well as their Dung, and 
many of the poor Creatures perim in the Mire, into the Bar- 
gain, by this ill Management. 

Some, who pique themfelves more upon Indufcry than their 
Neighbours, will, now and then, in compliment to their Cattle, 
cut down a Tree whofe Limbs are loaden with the Mofs afore- 
mention'd. The trouble wou'd be too great to Climb the Tree 
in order to gather this Provender, but the Shorteft way (which 
in this Countrv is always counted the beftj is to fell it, 
juft like the Lazy Indians, who do the fame by fuch Trees as 
bear fruit, and fo make one Harveft for all. By this bad Huf- 
bandry Milk is fo Scarce, in the Winter Seafon, that were a 
Big-bclly'd Woman to long for it, She would lofe her Longing. 
And, in truth, I believe this is often the Cafe, and at the fame 
time a very good reafon why fo many People in this Province 
are markt with a Cuftard Complexion. 

The only Bufinefs here is raifing of Hogs, which is manag'd 
with the leaf!; Trouble, and affords the Diet they are moft fond 
of. The Truth of it is, the Inhabitants of N Carolina devour 
fo much Swine's flefli, that it fills them full of grofs Humours. 
For want too of a conftant Supply of Salt, they are commonly 
obliged to eat it Freih, and that begets the higheif. taint of 
Scurvy. Thus, whenever a Severe Cold happens to Conftitu- 
tions thus Vitiated, tis apt to improve into the Yaws, called 
there very juflly the country-Diftemper. This has all the 
Symptoms of the Pox, with this Aggravation, that no Prepara- 

Dividing Line. oo 

tion of Mercury will touch it. Firft it feizes the Throat, next 1728 
the Palate, and tartly (hews its fpite to the poor Nofe, of which March 
tis apt in a fmall time treacheroufly to undermine the Founda- v- ~ > <^' 

This Calamity is fo common and familiar here, that it ceafes 
to be a Scandal, and in the difputes that happen about Beauty, 
the Nofes have in lb me Companies much ado to carry it. Nay, 
tis faid that once, after three good Pork years, a Motion had 
like to have been made in the Houfe of Burgefles, that a Man 
with a Nofe fhou'd be incapable of holding any Place of Profit 
in the Province ; which Extraordinary Motion could never have 
been intended without Some Hopes of a Majority. 

Thus, conlidering the foul and pernicious Effects of Eating 
Swine's Flefh in a hot Country, it was wifely forbidden and 
made an Abomination to the Jews, who liv'd much in the fame 
Latitude with Carolina. 

We ordered the Surveyors early to their Bufinefs, who were 1 j 
bleflt with pretty dry Grounds for three Miles together. But 
they paid dear for it in the next two, confdting of one continued 
frightfull Pocofon, which no Creatures but thofe of the amphi- 
bious kind ever had ventur'd into before. 

This filthy Quagmire did in earned put the Men's Courage 
to a Tryal, and tho' I can't fay it made them lofe their Patience, 
yet they loft their Humour for Joking. They kept their Gravity 
like fo many Spaniards, Co that a Alan might then have taken 
his Opportunity to plunge up to the Chin, without Danger 
of being laught at. However, this unufual compofure of coun- 
tenance could not fairly be call'd complaining. 

Their Day's- Work ended at the Mouth of Northern's Creek, 
which empties itfclf into N W River ; tho' we chofe to Quarter 
a little higher up the River, near Molly Point. This we did 
for the Convenience of an Old houfe to Shelter our Perfons and 
Baggage from the rain, which threatcn'd us hard. We judg'd 

34 The Hifiory of the 

1728 the thing right, for there fell an heavy mower in the Night, that 
March drove tne rno f r narc ly f us f nto tr)C Houfe. Tho' indeed, our 
cafe was not much mended by retreating thither, becaufe that 
Tenement having not long before been uf 'd as a Pork-Store, the 
Moifture of the Air diiTblv'd the Salt that lay Scatter'd on the 
Floor, and made it as wet within Doors as without. However, 
the Swamps and Marines we were lately accuftom'd to had made 
fuch Beavers and Otters of us that Nobody caught the leaft 

We had encampt fo carlv, that we found time in the Evening 
to walk near half a Mile into the Woods. There we came 
upon a Family of Mulattoes, that call'd themfelves free, tho' by 
the Shynefs of the Matter of the Houfe, who took care to keep 
lealt in Sight, their Freedom feem'd a little Doubtful. It is cer- 
tain many Slaves Shelter themfelves in this Obfcure Part of the 
World, nor will any of their righteous Neighbours difcover 
them. On the Contrary, they find their Account in Settling 
fuch Fugitives on fome out-of-the-way-corner of their Land, to 
raife Stocks for a mean and inconfiderable Share, well knowing 
their Condition makes it NeceiTary for them to Submit to any 

Nor were thefe worthy Borderers content to Shelter Runaway 
Slaves, but Debtors and Criminals have often met with the like 
Indulgence. But if the Government of North Carolina has 
encourag'd this unneighbourly Policy in order to increafe their 
People, it is no more than what Ancient Rome did before them, 
which was made a City of Refuge for all Debtors and Fugitives, 
and from that wretched Beginning grew up in time to be A'lif- 
trefs of a great Part of the World. And, confidering how 
Fortune delights in bringing great things out of Small, who 
knows but Carolina may, one time or Other, come to be the Seat 
of fome other great Empire ? 
12 Every thing had been fo foakt with the Rain, that we were 

Dividing Line. 3 5 

oblis'd to lie by a good Part of the Morning and dry them. 1728 
However, that time was not loft, becaufe it gave the Surveyors March 
an opportunity of Platting off their Work, and taking the Courfe 
of the River. It likewife helpt to recruit the Spirits of the Men, 
who had been a little harafPd with Yefterday's March. Not- 
withftanding all this, we croiTt the River before Noon, and ad- 
vanced our Line 3 Miles. It was not poilible to make more of 
it, by reafon good Part of the way was either Marin, or Pocofon. 
The Line cut two or three Plantations, leaving Part of them in 
Virginia, and part of them in Carolina. This was a Cafe that 
happen'd frequently, to the great Inconvenience of the Owners, 
who were therefore oblig'd to take out two Patents and Pay for 
a new Survey in each Government. Xboj.XU t 

In the Evening we took up our Quarters in Mr. Ballance's 
Pafture, a little above the Bridge built over N W River. There 
we difcharg'd the two Periaugas, which in truth had been very 
Servicable in tranfporting us over the Many Waters in that 
Dirty and Difficult Part of our Bufinefs. 

Our Landlord had a tolerable good Houfe and Clean Furni- 
ture, and yet we cou'd not be tempted to lodge in it. We 
chofe rather to lve in the open Field, for fear of growing too 
tender. A clear Sky, fpangled with Stars, was our Canopy, 
which being the la ft thing we faw before we fell afleep, gave us 
Magnificent Dreams. The Truth of it is, we took fo much 
pleafure in that natural kind of Lodging, that I think at the foot 
of the Account Mankind are great Lofers by the Luxury of 
Feather-Beds and warm apartments. 

The curiofitv of beholding fo new and withal fo Sweet a 
Method of Encamping, brought one of the Senators of N Caro- 
lina to make us a Midnight Vifit. But he was fo very Clamor- 
ous in his Commendations of it, that the Centincl, not feeing 
his Quality, either thro' his habit or Behaviour, had like to have 
treated him roughly. 

36 The Hiflory of the 

1*728 After excufing the Unfeafonablenefs of his Vifit, and letting 

March us know he was a Parliament Man, he fwore he was fo taken 

v with our Lodging, that he would fet Fire to his Houfe as foon 

as he got Home, and teach his Wife and Children to lie, like us, 

in the open field. 

Early this Morning our Chaplain repair'd to us with the Men 
we had left at Mr. Wilfon's. We had fent for them the Eve- 
ning before to relieve thofe who had the Labour-Oar from 
Corotuck-Inlet. But to our great furprife, they pctition'd not 
to be reliev'd, hoping to gain immortal Reputation by being the 
firft of Mankind that Ventur'd thro' the great Difmal. But the 
reft being equally Ambitious of the fame Honour, it was but 
fair to decide their Pretentions by Let. After Fortune had dc- 
clar'd herfelf, thofe which fhe had excluded ofFer'd Money to 
the Happy Perfons to go in their Stead. But Hercules would 
have as foon fold the Glory of cleanfing the Augean Stables, 
which was pretty near the fame Sort of Work. 

No fooner was the Controverfy at an end, but we fent them 
unfortunate Fellows back to their Quarters, whom Chance had 
Condemn'd to remain upon Firm Land and Sleep in a whole 
Skin. In the mean while the Surveyors carry'd the Line 3 
Miles, which was no Contemptible day's work, confidering how 
cruelly they were entangled with. Bryars and Gall Bufhes. The 
Leaf of this laft Shrub beipcaks it to be of the Alaternus Family. 

Our Work ended within a Quarter of a Mile of the Difmal 
above-mention'd, where the Ground began to be already full of 
Sunken Floles and Slafhes, which had, here and there, fome few 
Reeds growing in them. 

Tis hardly credible how little the Bordering inhabitants were 
acquainted with this mighty Swamp, notwithftanding they had 
liv'd their whole lives within Smell of it. Yet, as great Stran- 
gers as they were to it, they pretended to be very exact in then- 
Account of its Demenfions, and were pofitive it could not be 

Dividing Line. 37 

above 7 or 8 Miles wide, but knew no more of the Matter than 172S 
Star-gazers know of the Diftance of the Fixt Stars. At the Same March 
time, they were Simple enough to amufe our Men with Idle N ^*° 
Stories of the Lyons, Panthers and Alligators, they were like to 
encounter it that dreadful Place. 

In fliort, we faw plainly there was no Intelligence of this 
Terra Incognita to be got, but from our own Experience. For 
that Reafon it was refolv'd to make the requifite Difpofitions to 
enter it next Morning. We allotted every one of the Surveyors 
for this painful Enterprife, with 12 Men to attend them. Fewer 
than that cou'd not be employ'd in clearing the way, carrying 
the Chain, marking the Trees, and bearing the neceffary Bed- 
ding and Provifions. Nor wou'd the Commimoners themfelves 
have Spared their Perfons on this Occafion, but for fear of add- 
ing to the poor men's Burthen, while they were certain they 
cou'd add nothing to their Refolution. 

We quarter'd with our Friend and Fellow Traveller, William 
Wilkins, who had been our faithful Pilot to Coratuck, and liv'd 
about a mile from the Place where the Line ended. Every 
thing lookt fo very clean, and the Furniture fo neat, that we 
were tempted to Lodge within Doors. But the Novelty of 
being fhut up fo clofe quite fpoil'd our reft, nor did we breathe 
fo free by abundance, as when we lay in the open Air. 

Before nine of the Clock this Morning, the Provifions, Bed- ja 
ding and other Neceffaries, were made up into Packs for the 
Men to carry on their Shoulders into the Difmal. They were 
vi&uall'd for 8 days at full Allowance, Nobody doubting but 
that wou'd be abundantly Sufficient to carry them thro' that In- 
hofpitable Place ; nor Indeed was it poffible for the Poor Fellows 
to Stagger under more. As it was, their Loads weigh'd from 
60 to 70 Pounds, in juffc Proportion to the Strength of thofe 
who were to bear them. 

Twou'd have been unconfcionable to have Saddled them with 

38 The Hi/lory of the 

1728 Burthens heavier than that, when they were to lugg them thro' 
March a filthy Bogg, which was hardly pradicable with no Burthen 

V "~ v at all. 

Befidcs this Luggage at their Backs, they were oblig'd to 
meafure the diftance, mark the Trees, and clear the way for the 
Surveyors every Step they went. It was really a Fleafure to fee v 
with how much Cheerfulncfs they undertook, and with how 
much Spirit they went thro' all this Drudgery. For their 
Greater Safety, the Commiflioners took care to furnifh them 
with Peruvian-Bark, Rhubarb and Hipocoacanah, in cafe they 
might happen, in that wet Journey, to be taken with fevers or 

Altho' there was no need of Example to inflame Perfons 
already fo cheerful, yet to enter the People with the better grace,' 
the Author and two more of the Commiflioners accompanied 
them half a Mile into the Difmal. The Skirts of it were thinly 
Planted with Dwarf Reeds and, but when we got 
into the Difmal itfelf, we found the Reeds grew there much 
taller and clofer, and, to mend the matter was fo interlac'd with 
bamboe-briars, that there was no fcuffling thro' them without 
the help of Pioneers. At the fame time, we found the 
Ground moift and trembling under our feet like a Quagmire, 
infomuch that it was an eafy Matter to run a Ten-Foot-Pole up 
to the Head in it, without exerting any uncommon Strength to 
do it. 

Two of the Men, whole Burthens were the leaft cumberfome, 
had orders to march before, with their Tomahawks, and clear 
the way, in order to make an Opening for the Surveyors. By 
their AfTiftance we made a Shift to pufh the Line half a Mile in 
3 Hours, and then reacht a fmall piece of firm Land, about roo 
Yards wide, Standing up above the reft like an Ifland. Here 
the people were glad to lay down their Loads and take a little 
refrefhment, while the happy man, whofe lot it was to carry the 

Dividing Line. 39 

Jugg of Rum, began already, like /Lfop's Bread-Carriers, to find 1728 
it grow a good deal lighter. March 

After repofingahout an Flour, the Commi/Koners recommended v ~~ 
Vigour and Constancy to their Fellow-Travellers, by whom 
they were anfwer'd with 3 Cheerful Huzzas, in Token of Obe- 
dience. This Ceremony was no (boner over but they took up 
their Burthens and attended the Motion of the Surveyors, 
who, tho' they workt with all their might, could reach but one 
Mile farther, the fame obftacles ftill attending them which they 
had met with in the Morning. 

However fmall this diftance may feem to fuch as are uf'd to 
travel at their Eafe, yet our Poor Men, who were oblig'd to 
work with an unwieldv Load at their Backs, had reafon to think 
it a long way ; Especially in a Bogg where they had no firm 
Footing, but every Step made a deep ImprelTion, which was in- 
ftantly fill'd with Water. At the fame time, they were labour- 
ing with their Hands to cut down the Reeds, which were Ten- 
feet high, their Legs were hampered with the Bryars. Bclides, 
the Weather happen'd to be warm, and the tallnefs of the Reeds 
kept off every Friendly Breeze from coming to refrefh them. 
And, indeed, it was a litt'e provoking to hear the Wind whitt- 
ling among the Branches of the White Cedars, which grew here 
and there amongft the Reeds, and at the fame time not have the 
Comfort to feel the leaft Breath of it. 

In the mean time the 3 Commifiioners return'd out of the 
Difmal the fame way they went in, and, having join'd their 
Brethren, proceeded that Night as far as Mr. Wilfon's. 

This worthy Perfon lives within light of the Difmal, in the 
Skirts whereof his Stocks range and Maintain themfelves all the 
Winter, and yet he knew as little of it as he did of Terra Auf- 
tralis Incognita. He told us a Canterbury Tale of a North 
Briton, whofe Curiofity Spurr'd him a long way into this great 
Defart, as he call'd it, near 20 Years ago, but he having no 

40 The Hi/lory of the 

1728 Compafs, nor feeing the Sun for feveral Days Together, wan- 
March der'd about till he was almoft famifht ; but at laft he bethought 
"~ v >'""~ himlelt of a Secret his Countrymen make ufe of to Pilot thcm- 
felves in a Dark day. 

He took a fat Loufe out of his Collar, and expof'd it to the 
open day on a Piece of White Paper, which he brought along 
with hirn for his Journal. The poor InfecT: having no Eye-lids, 
turn'd himfelf about till he found the Darkeft Part of the 
Heavens, and fo made the beft of his way towards the North. 
By this Direction he Steer' d himfelf Safe out, and gave fuch a 
frightful account of the Monfters he faw, and the Diftrefles he 
underwent, that no mortall Since has been hardy enough to go 
upon the like dangerous Difcovery. 
jr The Surveyors purfued their work with all Diligence, but 
Still found the Soil of the Difmal fo Spongy that the Water 
ouzed up into every footftep they took. To their Sorrow, too, 
they found the Reeds and Bryars more firmly interwoven than 
than they did the day before. But the greater! Grievance was 
from large Cyprefles, which the Wind had blown down and 
heap'd upon one another. On the Limbs of moit of them grew 
Sharp Snags, Pointing every way like fo many Pikes, that re- 
quir'd much Pains and Caution to avoid. 

Thefe Trees being Evergreens, and Shooting their Large 
Tops Very high, are eafilv overfet by every Gufl of Wind, be- 
caufe there is no firm Earth to Steddy their Roots. Thus many 
of them were laid proftrate to the great Encumbrance of the 
way. Such Variety of Difficulties made the Bufmefs go on 
heavily, infomuch that, from Morning till Night, the Line could 
advance no farther than I mile and 31 Poles. Never was Rum, 
that cordial of Life, found more necefTary than it was in this 
Dirty Place. It did not only recruit the People's Spirits, now 
almoft Jaded with Fatigue, but lerv'd to correct the Badnefs of 
the Water, and at the fame time to refill the Malignity of the 

Dividing Line. 41 

Air. Whenever the Men wanted to drink, which was very 172S 
often, they had nothing more to do but to make a Hole, and March 
the Water bubbled up in a Moment. But it was far from be- v ~" 
ing either clear or well tailed, and had befides a Ph) Ileal Effect, 
from the Tincture it receiv'd from the Roots of the Shrubbs and 
Trees that grew in the Neighbourhood. 

While the Surveyors were thus painfully employ'd, the Com- 
mifhoncrs difcharged the long Score they had with Mr. Wilfun, 
for the Men and Horfes which had been quarter'd upon him 
during our Expedition to Coratuck. From thence we march'd 
in good Order along the Eaft Side of the Difmal, and paflt the 
long Bridge that lies over the South Branch of Elizabeth River. 
At the End of 18 Miles we reacht Timothy Ivy's Plantation, 
where we pitcht our Tent for the fir ft Time, and were furnifht 
with every thing the Place afforded. 

We perceiv'd the happy Effects of Induftry in this Family, in 
which every one lookt tidy and clean, and carri'd in their coun- 
tenances the chearful Marks of Plenty. We faw no Drones 
there, which are but too Common, alas, in that Part of the 
World. Tho', in truth, the Diilemper of Lazinefs feizes the 
Men oftener much than the Women. Thefe laft Spin, weave 
and knit, all with their own Hands, while their Hufbands, de- 
pending on the Bounty of the Climate, are Sloathfull in every 
thing but getting of Children, and in that only Inftance make 
themfelves ufeful Members of an Infant-Colony. 

There is but little Wool in that Province, tho' Cotton grows 
very kindly, and, fo far South, is Seldom nippt by the Froir.. 
The Good Women mix this with their Wool for their outer 
Garments ; tho', for want of Fulling, that kind of Manufacture 
is Open and Sleazy. Flax likewife thrives there extreamly, 
being perhaps as fine as any in the World, and I queftion not 
might, with a little care, and pains, be brought to rival that of 

42 The Hiftory of the 

1728 Egypt ; and yet the Men are here fo intolerable Lazy, they fel- 
March d m take the trouble to propagate it. 
"~ V ~V The Line was this day carry'd one Mile and half and 16 Poles. 
The Soil continued Toft and Miry, but fuller of Trees, efpecially 
White cedars. Many of thefe too were thrown down and piled 
in Heaps, high enough for a good Mufcovite Fortification. The 
worft of it was, the Poor Fellows began now to be troubled with 
Fluxes, occafion'd by bad Water and moift Lodging : but chew- 
ing of Rhubarb kept that Malady within Bounds. 

In the mean time the Commifiioners decampt early in the 
Morning, and made a March of 25 Miles, as far as Air. Andrew 
Mead's, who lives upon Nanfimand River. They were no 
fooner got under the Shelter of that Hofpitable Roof, but it be- 
gan to rain hard, and continued fo to do great part of the Nio;ht. 
This gave them much Pain for their Friends in the Difmal, 
whofe fufferings fpoilt their Taft for the good Chear, wherewith 
they were entertain'd themfelves. 

However, late that Evening, thefe poor Men had the Fortune 
to come upon another Terra-firma, which was the Luckyer for 
them, becaufe the Lower ground, by the rain that fell, was made 
a fitter Lodging for Tadpoles than men. 

In our Journey we remarkt that the North Side of this great 
Swamp lies higher than either the Eaft or the Weft, nor were 
the approaches to it fo full of Sunken Grounds. We pafft by 
no lefs than two Quaker Meeting Houfes, one of which had an 
Awkward Ornament on the Weft End of it, that feem'd to Ape 
a Steeple. I mull own I expected no fuch Piece of Foppery 
from a Sect of fo much outiide Simplicity. 

That perfuafion prevails much in the lower end of Nanfirnond 
county, for want of Miniiters to Pilot the People a decenter wav 
to Heaven. 

The ill Reputation of Tobacco planted in thofe lower Parifhes 
makes the Clergy unwilling to accept of them, unlefs it be fuch 

Dividing Line. 43 

whofe abilities are as mean as their Pay. Thus, whether the 1728 
Churches be quite void or but indifferently filled, the Quakers March 
will have an Opportunity of gaining Profelytes. Tis a wonder *""" 
no Popifh MiiEonaries are fent from Maryland to labour in this 
Neglected Vineyard, who we know have Zeal enough to tra- 
verfe Sea and Land on the Meritorious Errand of making con- 

Nor is it lefs Strange that fome Wolf in Sheep's cloathing 
arrives not from New England to lead a ft ray a Flock that has 
no fhepherd. People uninftrucled in any Religion are ready to 
embrace the firft that offers. Tis natural for helplefs man to 
adore his Maker in Some Form or other, and were there any 
exception to this Rule, I mould fuipecl it to be among the Hot- 
tentots of the Cape of Good-Hope and of North Carolina. 

There fell a great deal of Rain in the Night, accompany'd 
with a Strong Wind. The fellow-feeling we had for the poor 
Difmalites, on Account of this unkind Weather, render'd the 
Down we laid upon uneafy. We fancy'd them half-drown'd in 
their Wet Lodging, with the Trees blowing down about their 
Ears. Thefe Were the Gloomy Images our Fears Suggefted ; 
tho' twas fo much uncafinefs clear gain. They happen'd to 
come of much better, by being luckily encampt on the dry piece 
of Ground afore-mention'd. 

They were, however, forct. to keep the Sabbath in Spite of 1 7 
their Teeth, contrary to the Difpenfation our good Chaplain had 
given them. Indeed, their Short allowance of Provilion would 
have juftifv'd their making the bell: of their way, without Dif- 
tinction of days. Twas certainly a Work both of Neceffity 
and Self-prefervation, to lave themfelves from Starving. Never- 
thclefs, the hard Rain had made every thing fo thoroughly wet, 
that it was quite impoilible to do any Bufmefs. They therefore 
made a vertue of what they could not help, and contentedly 
refted in their dry Situation. 

44 *£be Hiftery of the 

1728 Since the Surveyors had enfer'd the DTmal, they had laid 
March Eyes on no living Creature : neither Bird nor Beaft, Infect nor 
Reptile came in View. Doubtlefs, the Eternal Shade that broods 
over this mighty Bog, and hinders the fun-beams from bleffing 
the Ground, makes it an uncomfortable Habitation for any thing 
that has life. Not fo much as a Zealand Frog cou'd endure (o 
Aguifh a Situation. 

It had one Beauty, however, that delighted the Eye, tho' at 
the Expenfe of all the other Senfes : the Moifture of the Soil 
preferves a continual Verdure, and makes every Plant an Ever- 
green, but at the fame time the foul Damps afcend without ceaf- 
ing, corrupt the Air, and render it unfit for Refpiration. Not 
even a Turkey-Buzzard will venture to fly over it, no more 
than the Italian Vultures will over the filthy Lake Avernus, or 
the Birds in the Holy-Land over the Salt Sea, where Sodom and 
Gomorrah formerly flood. 

In thefe fad Circumftances, the kindeft thing we cou'd do for 
our Suffering Friends was to give them a place in the Litany. 
Our Chaplain, for his Part, did his Office, and rubb'd us up with 
a Seafonable Sermon. This was quite a new thing to our 
Brethren of North Carolina, who live in a climate where no 
clergyman can Breathe, any more than Spiders in Ireland. 

For want of men in Holy Orders, both the Members of the 
Council and Juftices of the Peace are empower'd by the Laws 
of that Country to marry all thofe who will not take One another's 
Word ; but for the ceremony of Chriltening their children, they 
truft that to chance. If a Parfon come in their way, they will 
crave a Caft of his office, as they call it, elfe they are content 
their Offspring fhould remain as Arrant Pagans as themfelves. 
They account it among their greateft advantages that they are not 
Prieft-ridden, not remembering that the Clergy is rarely guilty 
of Beitriding fuch as have the misfortune to be poor. 

One thing may be faid for the Inhabitants of that Province, 

Dividing Line. 45 

that they are not troubled with any Religious Fumes, and have r728 
the leaft Superftition of any People living. They do not know March 
Sunday from any other day, any more than Robin fon Crufo did, v ~~ N -'~ 
which would give them a great Advantage were they given to 
be induftrious. But they keep fo many Sabbaths every week, 
that their difregard of the Seventh Day has no manner of cruelty 
in it, either to Servants or Cattle. 

It was with fome difficulty we cou'd make our People quit the 
good chear they met with at this Houfe, fo it was late before we 
took our Departure; but to make us amends, our Landlord was 
fo good as to conduct us Ten Miles on our Way, as far as the 
Cyprefs Swamp, which drains itfclf into the Difmal, Eight 
Miles beyond that we forded the Waters of Coropeak, which 
tend the feme way as do many others on that fide. In Six 
Miles more we reacht the Plantation of Mr. Thomas Spight, a 
Grandee of N Carolina, We found the good Man upon his 
Crutches, being crippled with the Gout in both his Knees. 
Here we flatter'd ourfelves we mould by this time meet with 
good Tydings of the Surveyors, but had reckon'd, alas ! without 
our Hoft: on the Contrary, we were told the Difmal was at 
leaft Thirty Miles wide in that Place. However, as nobody 
could fay this on his own Knowledge, we Order'd Guns to be 
fired and a Drum to be beaten, but receiv'd no Anfwer, unlefs 
it was from that prating Nymph Echo, who, like a loquacious 
Wife, will always have the laft Word, and Sometimes return 
three for one. 

It was indeed no Wonder our Signal was not heard at that 18 
time, by the People in the Difmal, becaufe, in Truth, they had 
not then penetrated one Third of their way. They had that 
Morning fallen to work with great Vigour; and, finding the 
Ground better than Ordinary, drove on the Line 2 Miles and 
38 poles. This was reckon'd an Herculean day's Work, and 
yet they would not have Stopp'd there, had not an impenetrable 

46 The Hifiory of the 

1728 cedar Thicket checkt their Jnduftry. Our Landlord had feated 
March Himfelf on the Borders of this Dii'mal, for the Advantage of the 
~^~~~^ Green Food His Cattle find there all Winter, and for the Root- 
ing that Supports His Hogs. This, I own, is fome convenience 
to his Purfe, for which his whole Family pay dear in their Per- 
fons, for thev are devoured by mufketas all the Summer, and 
have Agues every Spring and Fall, which Corrupt all the Juices 
of their Bodies, give them a cadaverous complexion, and befides 
a lazy, creeping Habit, which they never get rid of. 
!o We Ordered Several Men to Patrole on the Edge of the 
Difrnal, both towards the North and towards the South, and to 
fire Guns at proper Diftances. This they perform'd very 
punctually, but cou'd hear nothing in return, nor gain any Sort 
of Intelligence. In the mean time whole Flocks of Women 
and Children flew hither to Stare at us, with as much curiofity 
as if we had lately Landed from Bantam or Morocco. 

Some Borderers, too, had a great Mind to know where the 
Line wou'd come out, being for the moft part Apprehenfive left 
their Lands Should be taken into Virginia. In that cafe they 
muft have fubmitted to fome Sort of Order and Government ; 
whereas, in N Carolina, every One does what feems beft in his 
own Eyes. There were fome good Women that brought their 
children to be Baptiz'd, but brought no Capons along with them 
to make the folemnity cheerful. In the mean time it was Strange 
that none came to be marry'd in fuch a Multitude, it it had only 
been for the Novelty of having their Hands Joyn'd by one in 
Holy Orders. Yet fo it was, that tho' our chaplain Chriften'd 
above an Hundred, he did not marry fo much as one Couple 
duieing the whole Expedition. But marriage is reckon'd a Lay 
contract in Carolina, as I faid before, and a Country Juftice can 
tie the fatal Knot there, as fa ft as an Arch-Bifhop. 

None of our Vifiters could, however, tell us any News of the 

Dividi?ig Line, 47 

Surveyors, nor Indeed was it poihble any of them fhou'd at that 1728 
time, They being ftill laboring in the Midft of the Difmal. March 

It feems they were able to carry the Line this Day no further 
than one mile and 61 Poles, and that whole diftance was thro' a 
Miry cedar Bogg, where the ground trembled under their Feet 
moil: frightfully. In many places too their Paflagc was retarded 
by a great number of fallen Trees, that lay Ilorfing upon one 

Tho' many circumftances concurr'd to make this an un- 
wholefome Situation, yet the Poor men had no time to be lick, 
nor can one conceive a more Calamitous Cafe than it would 
have been to be laid up in that uncomfortable Quagmire. 
Never were Patients more tractable, or willing to take Phyfick, 
than thefe honeil Fellows ; but it was from a Dread of laying their 
Bones in a Bogg that wou'd foon fpew them up again. That 
Confideration alio put them upon more caution about their 

They firft cover'd the Ground with Square Pieces of Cyprcfs 
bark, which now, in the Spring, they cou'd eafily Slip oh 1 the 
Tree for that purpofe. On this they Spread their Bedding •, but 
unhappily the Weight and Warmth of their Bodies made the 
Water rife up betwixt the Joints of the Bark, to their great In- 
convenience. Thus they lay not only moift, but alfo exceed- 
ingly cold, becaufe their Fires were continually going out. I or 
no fooner was the Tram upon the Surface burnt away, but im- 
mediately the Fire was extinguifnt by the Moifture of the Soil, 
Infomuch that it was great part of the Centinel's Bufinefs to re- 
kindle it again in a Frefh Place, every Quarter of an Hour. 
Nor cou'd they indeed do their duty better, becaufe Cold was 
theonly Enemy they had to Guard againft in a miierable Morafs, 
where nothing can inhabit. 

We could get no Tidings yet of our Brave Adventurers, not- 20 
withftanding we defpatcht men to the likelieft Stations to en- 

48 The Hijlory of the 

1728 quire after them. They were ftill Scuffleing in the Mire, and 
March cou l ( l not Poflibly forward the Line this whole day more than 
S ""~" v ~*~' / one Mile and 64 Chains. Every Step of this Day's Work was 
thro' a cedar Bog, where the Trees were fomewhat Smaller and 
grew more into a Thicket. It was now a great Misfortune to 
the Men to find their Provifions grow lefs as their Labour grew 
greater ; They were all forct to come to fhort Allowance, and 
confequently to work hard without filling their Bellies. Tho' 
this was very fevere upon Englifh Stomachs, yet the People 
were Co far from being difcomfked at it, that they ftill kept up 
their good Humour, and merrily told a young Fellow in the 
Company, who lookt very Plump and Wholefome, that he rauft 
expeel to go fir ft to Pot, if matters fhou'd come to Extremity. 

This was only faid by way of Jeft, yet it made Him thought- 
ful in earned:. However, for the Prefent he return'd them a 
very civil anfwer, letting them know that, dead or alive, he 
fhou'd be glad to be ufeful to fuch worthy good PViends. But, 
after all, this Humorous Saying had one very good Effect, for 
that younker, who before was a little enclin'd by his Conftitu- 
tion to be lazy, grew on a Sudden Extreamly Induftrious, that 
fo there might be lefs Occafion to carbonade him for the good of 
his Fellow-Travellers. 

While our Friends were thus embarraflt in the Difmal, the 
Commiflioners began to ly under great uneafinefs for them. 
They knew very well their Provifions muft by this time begin 
to fall Short, nor cou'd they conceive any likely means of a 
Supply. At this time of the Year both the Cattle and Hoggs 
had forfaken the Skirts of the Difmal, invited by the Springing 
Grafs on the firm Land. All our hopes were that Providence 
wou'd caufe fome Wild Game to fall in their way, or elfe direct 
them to a wholefome Vegetable for Subfiftcnce. In Short they 
were haunted with fo many Frights on this Occafion, that they 

Dividing Line. 49 

were in truth more uneafy than the Perfons whofe Cafe they 1728 

, . 1 March 


We had feveral Vifiters from Edenton, in the Afternoon, that v ~^'~" 
came with Mr. Gale, who had prudently left us at Corotuck, to 
Scuffle thro' that dirty Country by our Selves. Thcfe Gentle- 
men, having good Nofes, had finch out, at 30 Miles' Diftancc, 
the Precious Liquor, with which the Liberality of our good 
"Friend Mr. Mead had juft before Supply'd us. That generous 
Perfon had judg'd very right, that we were now got out of the 
Latitude of Drink proper for men in AfRiaion, and therefore 
was fa good as to fend his Cart loaden with all forts of refrefh- 
ments, for which the Commifnoners return'd Him their Thanks, 
and the Chaplain His Blefling. 

The Surveyors and their Attendants began now in good 21 
Earned to be alarm'd with Apprehenlions of Famine, nor could 
they forbear looking with Some Sort of Appetite upon a dog that 
had been the faithful Companion of their Travels. 

Their Provifions were now near exhaufted. They had this 
Morning made the laft Difiribution, that fo each might Hufband 
his fmall Pittance as he pleaf'd. Now it was that the frefh 
Colour'd Young Man began to tremble every Joint of Him, 
having dreamed, the Night before, that the Indians were about 
to Barbacue him over live coals. 

The Profpec"t of Famine determin'd the People, at laft, with 
one confent, to abandon the Line for the PrefenL, which ad- 
vanced but (lowly, and make the beft of their way to firm Land. 
Accordingly they fat off very early, and, by the help of the 
Compafs which they carried along with them, Steer'd a direcl 
Weftwardly Courfe. They marcht from Morning till Night, 
and Computed their Journey to amount to about 4 Miles, which 
was a great way, confidering the difficulties of the Ground. It 
was all along a Cedar-Swamp, fo dirty and perplcxt, that if they 

50 1 be Hiftory of the 

1728 ^^ not travell'd for their Lives, they cou'd not have reacht fo 
March far. 

""~v~~ On their way they efpied a Turkey-Buzzard, that flew pro- 
digioufly high to get above the Noifome Exhalations that afcend 
from that fihhy place. 1 This they were willing to underftand 
as a good Omen, according to the Superltition of the Ancients, 
who had great Faith in the Flight of Vultures. However, after 
all this tedious Journey, they could yet difcover no End of their 
toil, which made them very penfive, efpecially after they had eat 
the lad Morfel of their Provifions. But to their unfpeakable com- 
fort, when all was huflit in the Evening, they heard the Cattle low, 
and the Dogs bark, very diftinclly, which, to Men in that dif- 
trefs, was more delightful Mufic than Fauftina or Farinelli cou'd 
have made. In the mean time the Commiflioners could get no 
News of them from any of their Vifiters, who Afiembled from 
every Point of the Compafs. 

But the good Landlord had Vifiters of another kind while we 
were there, that is to fay, fome induftrious Mailers of Ships, that 
lay in Nanfimond River. Thefe worthy Commanders came to 
befpeak Tobacco from thefe Paits to make up their Loadings, 
in Contempt of the Virginia Law, which Pofitively forbad their 
taking in any made in North Carolina. Nor was this Reirraint 
at all unreafonable ; becaufe they have no Law in Carolina, 
either to mend the Ounlity or lelien the quantity of Tobacco, 
or fo much as to prevent the turning out of Seconds, all which 
cafes have been provided againft by the Laws of Virginia. - 
Wherefore, there can be no reafon why the Inhabitants of chat 
Province Shou'd have the fame Advantage of Shipping their 
Tobacco in our Parts, when they will by no means fubmit to 
the fame Rcftriclions that we do. 
22 Our Patrole happen'd not to go far enough to the Northward 

1 Buzzards cannot fmcll. 

2 See Jones's Virginia, 1 7 24, and liening's Statutes. 

Dividing Lifie. 5 1 

this Morning, if they had, the People in the Difmal might have 1-28 
heard the Report of their Guns. For this Reafon they rcturn'd March 
without any Tydings, which threw us into a great tho' unnecef- r ~" 
fary Perplexity. This was now the Ninth day fince they en- 
ter'd into that inhofpitable Swamp, and confequently we had 
reafon to believe their Provifions were quite Spent. 

We knew they workt hard, and therefore would eat heartily, 
fo long as they had wherewithal to recruit their Spirits, not im- 
agining the Swamp fo wide as they found it. Had we been able 
to guefs where the Line wou'd come out, we wou'd have feat 
men to meet them with a frefh Supply ; but as we cou'd know 
nothing of that, and as we had neither Compafs nor Surveyor to 
guide a Meil'enger on fuch an Errand, we were unwilling to ex- 
pcfe him to no Purpofe ; Therefore, all we were able to do for 
them, in fo great an Extremity, was to recommend them to a 
Merciful Providence. 

However long we might think the time, yet we were cautious 
of Shewing our uneafinefs, for fear of Mortifying our Landlord. 
He had Done his bell for us, and therefore we were unwilling 
he mould think us diffatisfy'd with our Entertainment. In the 
midft of our concern, we were molt agreeably furpriz'd, juft after 
Dinner, with the News that the Difmalites were all Safe. Thefe 
blefied Tidings were brought to us by Mr. Swan, the Carolina- 
Surveyor, who came to us in a very tatter'd condition. 

After very Short Salutations, we got about Him as if He had 
been a Hottentot, and began to Inquire into his Adventures. 
He gave us a Detail of their uncomfortable Voyage thro' the 
Difmal, and told us, particularly, they had purfucd their Journey 
early that Morning, encouraged by the good Omen of feeing the 
Crows fly over their Heads ; that, after an Hour's march over 
very Rotten Ground, they, on a Sudden, began to find them- 
felves among tall Pines, that grew in the Water, which in many 
Places was Kncc-deep. This Pine Swamp, into which that o( 

52 The Hijiory of the 

1728 Coropeak drain'd itfelf, extended near a Mile in Breadth ; and 

March tho' it was exceedingly wet, yet it was much harder at Bottom 

V *~ v "~ / than the reft of the Swamp ; that about Ten in the Morning, 

they recovered firm Land, which they embraced with as much 

Pleafure as Shipwreckt Wretches do the flioar. 

After thefe honeft adventurers had congratulated each other's 
Deliverance, their firft Inquiry was for a good Houfe, where 
they might Satisfy the Importunity of their Stomachs. Their 
good Genius directed them to Mr. Brinkley's, who dwells a little 
to the Southward of the Line. This Man began immediately 
to be very inquifitive, but they declar'd they had no Spirits to 
anfwer Oueftions till after Dinner. 

" But pray, Gentlemen," faid he, " anfwer me One Oueftion 
at leaft : what fhall we get for your Dinner?" To which they 
replied, "No Matter what, provided it be but Enough." He kindly 
fupply'd their Wants as foon as poffible, and by the Strength of 
that Refrcfhmcnt they made a Shift to come to us in the Eve- 
ning, to tell their own Story. They all lookt very thin, and as 
ragged as the Gibeonite AmbafTadors did in the davs of Yore. 
Our Surveyors told us they had meafur'd Ten Miles in the 
Difmal, and Computed the Diftance they had Marcht fmce to 
amount to about five more, So they made the whole Breadth to 
be 15 Miles in all. 
22 It was vei 'Y rcafonable that the Surveyors, and the men who 
had been Sharers in their Fatigue, mould now have a little Reft. 
They were all, except one, in good Health and good heart, 
blefTed be God ! notwithstanding the dreadful Hardfnips they 
had gone through. It was really a Pleafure to fee the Chearful- 
nefs wherewith they receiv'd the Order to prepare to re-enter 
the Difmal on the Monday following, in order to continue the 
Line from the place where they had left off meafuring, that fo 
we might have the P^xac"t Breadth of that Dirty Place. There 
were no more than two of them that cou'd be perfwaded to be 

Dividing Line. 53 

reliev'd on this Occafion, or Suffer the other men to Share the 1728 
Credi . of that bold Undertaking, Neither wou'd thefe have March 
SufFer'd it had not one of them been very lame, and the Other * 
much Indifpof'd. 

By the Defcription the Surveyors gave of the Difmal, we 
were eonvine'd that nothing but the Exceeding dry Seafon we 
had been bleiPd with cou'd have made the pa/Iing of it practica- 
ble. It is the Source of no lefs than five Several Rivers which 
difcharge themfelves Southward into Albermarle Sound, and of 
two that run northerly into Virginia. From thence tis eafy to 
imagine that the Soil mull be thoroughly Soakt with Water, or 
elfe there mull be plentiful Stores of it under Ground ; to fupply 
fo many Rivers; efpecially iince there is no Lake, or any con- 
fidcrable Body of that Element to be feen on the Surface. 1 The 
Rivers that Head in it from Virginia are the South Branch of 
Nanfimond, and the Weft Branch of Elizabeth ; and thole 
from Carolina are North-weft River, North River, Pafquetank, 
Little River, and Pequimons. 

There is one remarkable part of the Difmal, lying to the fouth 
of the Line, that has few or no Trees growing on it, but con- 
tains a large Tra£t. of tall Reeds. Thefe being green all the 
Year round, and waveing with every Wind, have procur'd it 
the Name of the Green Sea. 

We are not yet acquainted with the precife Extent of the 
Difmal, the whole haveing never been Survey'd ; but it may be 
Computed at a Medium to be about 30 Miles long and 10 Miles 
broad, tho' where the line croft it, twas compleatly 1 5 Miles wide. 
But it feems to grow Narrower towards the North, or at leaft 
does fo in many Places. The Exhalations that continually rife 
from this vaft Body of mire and Naftinefs infe£t the Air for 
many Miles round, and render it very unwholcfome for the 

1 Laks Drummond. 

54 *Ebe Hijiory of the 

j»y28 Bordering Inhabitants. It makes them liable to Agues, Pleuri- 
March ftes, and many other Diftempers, that kill abundance of People, 
y and make the reft look no better than Ghofts. It wou'd re- 
quire a great Sum of Money to drain it, but the Publick Trea- 
lure cou'd not be better beftow'd, than to preferve the Lives of 
his Majefty's Liege People, and at the fame time render fo great 
a Trait, of fwamp very Profitable, bcfides the advantage of 
making a Channel to tranfport by water-carriage goods from 
Albermarle Sound into Nanfimond and Elizabeth Rivers, in 
24 This being Sunday, we had a Numerous congregation, which 
fiockt to our Quarters from all the adjacent Country. The 
News that our Surveyors were come out of the Difrnal, increaf'd 
the Number very much, becaufe it wou'd give them an Oppor- 
tunity of gueiling, at leaft, whereabouts the Line wou'd cut, 
whereby they might form Some Judgment whether they be- 
long'd to Virginia or Carolina. Thofe who had taken up Land 
within the Difputed Bounds were in great pain left it fhould be 
found to ly in Virginia ; becaufe this being done contrary to an 
Exprefs Order of that government, the Patentees had great 
reafon to fear they fhould in that cafe have loft their land. But 
their Apprehenfions were now at an end, when they underftood 
that all the Territory which had been controverted was like to 
be left in Carolina. 

In the afternoon, thofe who were to re-enter the Difmal were 
furnifht with the Neceflary Provifions, and Order'd to repair 
the Over-Night to their Landlord, Peter Brinkley's, that they 
might be ready to begin their Buiinefs carlv en Monday Morn- 
ing. Mr. Irvin was excuf'd from the Fatigue, in complement 
to his Lungs ; but Mr. Mayo and Mr. Swan were Robuft 
enough to return upon that painful Service, and, to do them Juf- 
tice, they went with great Alacrity. The Truth was, they now 

Dividing Line. 55 

knew the worft of it ; and cou'd guefs pretty near at the time 179.0 » 

when they might hope to return to Land afain. March 

The Air was chill'd this Morning with a Smart North-weft ^~^^~^ 

Wind, which favour'd the Difmalites in their Dirty March. 

They return'd by the Path they had made in coming out, and 

with great Induftry arriv'd in the Evening at the Spot where 

the Line had been discontinued. 

After fo long and laborious a Journey, they were glad to re- 
pofe themfelves on their couches of Cyprefs-bark, where their 
fleep was as fweet as it wou'd have been on a Bed of Finland 

In the mean time, we who ftay'd behind had nothing to do, 
but to make the beft obfervations we cou'd upon that Part of 
the Country. The Soil of our Landlord's Plantation, tho' 
none of the beft, feem'd .more fertile than any thereabouts, 
where the Ground is near as Sandy as the Defarts of Affrica, 
and confequently barren. The Road leading from thence to 
Edenton, being in diflance about 27 Miles, lies upon a Ridge call'd 
Sandy-Riuge, which is fo wretchedly Poor that it will not bring 

The Pines in this Part of the country are of a difFerent Spe- 
cies from thofe that grow in Virginia: their bearded Leaves are 
much longer and their Cones much larger. 2 Each Cell contains 
a Seed of the Size and Figure of a black-ev'd Pea, which, Shed- 
ding in November, is very good Maft for Hogs, and fattens 
them in a Short time. 

The Smaller!: of thefe Pines are full of Cones, which are 8 or 
9 Inches long, and each affords commonly 60 or 70 Seeds. 
This Kind of Maft has the Advantage of all other, by being 
more conftant, and lefs liable to be nipp't by the Froft, or Eaten 

1 1729 in manufcript. 
8 See Ccnes. 

$6 The ffijtory of the 

1729 by the Caterpillars. The Trees alio abound more with Tur- 
March pontine, and confequently yield more Tarr, than either the 
Yellow or the White Pine ; And for the fame reafon make more 
durable Timber for building. The Inhabitants hereabouts pick 
up Knots of Lightwood in Abundance, which they burn into 
tar, and then carry it to Norfolk or Nanfimond for a Market. 
The Tar made in this method is the lefs Valuable, becaufe it is 
fai-d to burn the Cordage, tho' it is full as good fur all other ufes, 
as that made in Sweden and Mufcovy. 

Surely there is no place in the World where the Inhabitants 
live with lefs Labour than in N Carolina. It approaches nearer 
to the Defcription of Lubberland than any other, by the great 
felicity of the Climate, the eaimefs of railing Provifions, and the 
Sloth fulnefs of the People. 

Indian Corn is of fo great increafe, that a little Pains will 
Subfift a very large Family with Bread, and then they may have 
meat without any pains at all, by the Help of the Low Grounds, 
and the great Variety of Maft that grows on the High-land. 
The Men, for their Parts, juft like the Indians, impofe all the 
Work upon the poor Women. They make their Wives rife 
out of their Beds early in the Morning, at the fame time that 
they lye and Snore, till the Sun has run one third of his courfe, 
and difperft all the unwholefome Damps. Then, after Stretch- 
ing and Yawning tor half an Hour, they light their Pipes, and, 
under the Protection oi a cloud of Smoak, venture out into the 
open Air ; tho', if it happens to be never fo little cold, they 
quickly return Shivering into the Chimney corner. When the 
Weather is mild, they ftand leaning with both their arms upon 
the corn-field fence, and gravely confider whether they had beft 
go and take a Small Heat at the Hough : but generally find 
reafons to put it oil" till another time. 

Thus they loiter away their Lives, like Solomon's Sluggard, 

Dividing Line. $7 

with their Arms acrofs, and at the Winding up of the Year 1729 
Scarcely have Bread to Eat. March 

To fpeak the Truth, tis a thorough Averfion to Labor that 
makes People file off to N Carolina, where Plenty and a Warm 
Sun confirm them in their Difpofition to Lazinefs for their whole 

Since we were like to be confin'd to this place, till the People 26 
return'd out of the Difmal, twas agreed that our Chaplain might 
Safely take a turn to Edenton, to preach the Gofpel to the Infidels 
there, and Chrifrcn their Children. He was accompanv'd thither 
by Mr. Little, One of the Carolina Commilhoners, who, to 
{hew his regard for the Church, ofFer'd to treat Him on the 
Road with a FricaiYee of Rum. They fry'd half a Dozen 
Rafhers of very fat Bacon in a Pint of Rum, both which being 
difht up together, ferv'd the Company at once both for meat 
and Drink. 

Moil of the Rum they get in this Country comes from New 
England, and is fo bad and unwholefome, that it is not impro- 
perly calPd " Kill-Devil. " It is diflill'd there from forreign 
molofles, 1 which, if Skilfully manag'd, yields near Gallon for 
Gallon. Their mololles comes from the fame country, and has 
the name of " Long Sugar " in Carolina, I fuppofe from the 
Ropinefs of it, and Serves all the purpofes of Sugar, both in their 
Eating and Drinking. 

When they entertain their Friends bountifullv, they fail not 
to fet before them a Capacious Bowl of Bombo, fo call'd from 
the Admiral of that name. This is a Compound of Rum and 
Water in F,qual Parts, made palatable with the faid long Sugar. 
As good Humour begins to flow, and the Bowl to Ebb, they 
take Care to replenifh it with Shear Rum, of which there always 
is a Referve under the Table. But fuch Generous doings 

1 The fpelling of the time. Jones. 


58 The Hifiory of the 

1729 na PP cn only when that Balfam of life is plenty; for they have 

March often fiich Melancholy times, that neither Land-graves nor 

""""""* ' Cailicks can procure one drop for their Wives, when they ly in, 

or aie troubled with the Colick or Vapours. Very few in this 

Country have the Induftry to plant Orchards, which, in a 

Dearth of Rum, might fupply them with much better Liquor. 

The Truth is, there is one Inconvenience that eafily difcour- 
ages lazy People from making This improvement : very often, 
in Autumn, when the Apples begin to ripen, they are vifited 
with Numerous Flights of paraqueets, that bite all the Fruit to 
Pieces in a moment, for the fake of the Kernels. The Havock 
they make is Sometimes fo great, that whole Orchards are laid 
wafte in Spite of all the Noifes that can be made, or Mawkins 
that can be dreflt up, to fright 'em away. Thefe Ravenous 
Birds vifit North Carolina only during the warm Seafon, and fo 
foon as the Cold begins to come on, retire back towards the 
Sun. They rarely Venture fo far North as Virginia, except in 
a very hot Summer, when they vifit the mod Southern Parts of 
it. They are very Beautiful ; but like forne ether pretty Crea- 
tures, are apt to be loud and mifchievous. 
27 Betwixt this and Edenton there are many thuckleberry Slafhes, 
which afford a convenient Harbour for Wolves and Foxes. 
The firit. of thefe wild Beads is not fo large and fierce as they 
are in other countries more Northerly. Pie will not attack a 
Man in the keeneft of his Hunger, but run away from him, as 
from an Animal more mifchievous than himfelf. 

The Foxes are much bolder, and will Sometimes not onlv 
make a Stand, but likewife aiiault any one that would balk them 
of their Prey. The Inhabitants hereabouts take the trouble to 
dig abundance of Wolf-Pits, fo deep and perpendicular, that 
when a Wolf is once tempted into them, he can no more Scram- 
ble out again, than a Hufband who has taken the Leap can 
Scramble out of Matrimony. 

Dividing Line. $g 

Moft of the Houfes in this Part of the Country arc Lop- t—>o 
houfes, covered with Pine or Cyprefs Shingles, 3 feet long, and March 
one broad. They are hung upon Laths with Peggs, and their y 
doors too turn upon Wooden Hinges, and have wooden Locks 
to Secure them, fo that the Building is finifht without Nails or 
other Iron- Work. They alfo fet up their Pales without any 
Nails at all, and indeed more Securely than thofe that are naiPd. 
There are 3 Rails mortifed into the Ports, the loweft of which 
ferves as a Sill with a Groove in the Middle, big enough to re- 
ceive the End of the Pales : the middle Part of the Pale reus 
againft the lnfide of the Next Rail, and the Top of it is brought 
forward to the outfide of the uppermoft. Such Wreathing of 
the Pales in and out makes them ftand firm, and much harder 
to unfix than when nail'd in the Ordinary way. 

Within 3 or 4 Miles of Edenton, the Soil appears to be a 
little more fertile, tho' it is much cut with Slafhes, which feem 
all to have a tendency towards the Difmal. 

This Town is Situate on the North fide of Albermarle 
Sound, which. is there about 5 miles over. A Dirty Slafh runs 
all along the Back of it, which in the Summer is a foul annoy- 
ance, and furnifhes abundance of that Carolina plague, mufquetas. 
There may be 40 or 50 Houfes, moft of them Small, and built 
without Expenfe. A Citizen here is counted Extravagant, it 
he has Ambition enough to afpire to a Brick-chimney. Juflice 
herfelf is but indifferently Lodged, the Court-Houfe having 
much the Air of a Common Tobacco-Houfe. I believe this is 
the only Metropolis in the Chriftian or Mahometan World, 
where there is neither Church, Chappel, Mofque, Synagogue, or 
any other Place of Publick Worfhip of any Sect or Religion 

What little Devotion there may happen to be is much more 
private than their vices. The People feem eafy without a 
Minifter, as long as they are exempted from paying Him. Some- 

60 The Hljlory of the 

V]2() times the Society for propagating the Gofpel has had the Charity 
March t f ent j ovcr Miffionaries to this Country ; but unfortunately the 
Prieil has been too Lewd for the people, or, which oftcner hap- 
pens, they too lewd for the Prieft. For thefe Reafons thefe 
Reverend Gentlemen have always left their Flocks as arrant 
Heathen as they found them. Thus much however may be 
faid for the Inhabitants of Edcnton, that not a Soul has the leaft 
taint of Hypocrify, or Superftition, acting very Frankly and 
above-board in all their Excefles. 

Provifions here are extremely cheap, and extremely good, fo 
that People may live plentifully at a triffleing expenfe. Nothing 
is dear but Law, Phyfick, and Strong Drink, which are all bad 
in their Kind, and the laft they get with fo much Difficulty, that 
they are never guilty of the Sin of Suffering it to Sour upon their 
Hands. Their Vanity generally lies not fo much in having a 
handfome Dining-Room, as a Handfome Houfe* of Office : in 
this Kind of Structure they are really extravagant. 

They are rarely guilty of Flattering or making any Court to 
their governors, but treat them with all the ExcefTes of Freedom 
and Familiarity. They are of Opinion their rulers wou'd 
be apt to grow infolent, if they grew Rich, and for that reafon 
take care to keep them poorer, and more dependent, if poflible, 
than the Saints in New England ufed to do their Governors. 
They have very little coin, fo they are forced to carry on their 
Home-Traflick with Paper-Money. This is the only Cafh that 
will tarry in the Country, and for that reafon the Difcount goes 
on increafing between that and real Money, and will do io to 
the End of the Chapter. 
28 Our Time paiTt heavily in our Quarters, where we were quite 
cloy'd with the Carolina Felicity of having nothing to do. It 
was leally more infupportable than the great eft Fatigue, and 
made us even envy the Drudgery of our Friends in the Difmal. 
Befides, tho' the Men we had with us weie kept in Exact Dif- 

Dividing Line* 6 1 

cipline, and behav'c! without Reproach, yet our Landlord began 1729 
to be tired of them, fearing they would breed a Famine in his March 

Indeed, fo many keen Stomachs made great Havock amongft 
the Beef and Bacon, which he had laid in for his Summer Pro- 
vifion, nor cou'd he eafily purchafe More at that time of the 
Year, with the Money we paid him, becaufe the People having 
no certain Market feldom provide any more of thefe Commodi- 
ties than will barely fupply their own Occauons. Befides the 
Weather was now grown too warm to lay in a frefh Stock fo 
late in the Spring;. Thefe Confiderations abated fomevvhat of 
that chearfulnefs with which he bidd us Welcome in the Begin- 
ning, and made him think the time quite as long as we did till 
the Surveyors return'd. 

While we were thus all Hands uneafy, we were comforted 
with the News that this Afternoon the Line was finifht through 
the Difmal. The Meffcnger told us it had been the hard work 
of three days to meafurc the Length of only 5 Miles, and mark 
the Trees as they paft along, and by the moft exact Survey 
they found the Breadth of the Difmal in this Place to be com- 
pletely 15 Miles. 

How wide it may be in other Parts, we can give no Account, 
but believe it grows narrower towards the North ; poilibly 
towards Albermarle Sound it may be fomething broader, where 
fo many Rivers ilTue out of it. All we know for certain is, that 
from the Place where the Line enter'd the Difmal, to where it 
came out, we found the Road round that Portion of it which 
belongs to Virginia to be about 65 Miles. How great the Dif- 
tance may be from Each of thofc Points, round that Part that 
falls within the Bounds of Carolina, we had no certain Informa- 
tion : tho' tis conjeclur'd it cannot be fo little as 30 Miles. At 
which rate the whole Circuit mult be about an Hundred. What 
a Mafs of Mud and Dirt is trcafur'd up within this filthy cir- 

62 The Hifiory of the 

1728 cumference, and what a Quantity of Water muft perpetually 
March drain into it from the rifeing ground that Surrounds it on every 
v -*-^~~' Side ? 

Without taking the Exact level of the Difmal, we may be 
fure that it declines towards the Places where the Several Rivers 
take their Rife, in order to carrying ofF the conftant Supplies of 
Water. Were it not for fuch Difcharges, the whole Swamp 
would long Since have been converted into a Lake. On the 
other Side this Declenfion muft be very gentle, elfe it would be 
laid perfectly dry by fo many continual drains ; Whereas, on 
the contrary, the Ground feems every where to be thoroughly 
drencht even in the dry eft Seafon of the Year. 

The Surveyors concluded this day's Work with running 25 
chains up into the Firm Land, where they waited farther Orders 
from the Commimoners. 
2Q This day the Surveyors proceeded with the Line no more 
than 1 Mile and 15 Chains, being Interrupted by a Mill Swamp, 
thro' which they made no difficulty of wading, in order to make 
their work more exact. 

Thus, like Norway-Mice, thefe worthy Gentlemen went 
right forward, without Suffering themfelves to be turned out of 
the way by any Obftacle whatever. 

We are told by fome Travellers, that thofe Mice march in 
mighty Armies, deftroying all the fruits of the Earth as they 2.0 
along. But Something Peculiar to thofe obftinate little Animals 
is, that nothing ftops them in their career, and if a Houfe hap- 
pen to ftand in their way, difdaining to go an Inch about, they 
crawl up one fide of it, and down the other : or if they meet with 
any River, or other Body of Water, they are fo determin'd, that 
they fwim directly over it, without varying one Point from their 
courfe for the Sake of any Safety or Convenience. 

The Surveyors were alfo hinder' d fome Time by Settin* up 

'Dividing Line. 63 

Pods in the great Road, to (hew the Bounds between the two 1729 
Colonies. March 

Our Chaplain return'd to us in the Evening from Edenton, "~v""" 
in Company with the Carolina Commiflioners. He had pieacht 
there in the Court-Houfe, for want of a confecrated Place, and 
made no lefs than 19 of Father Hennepin's Chriftians. 

By the permiflion of the Carolina Commiflioners, Mr. Swan 
was allow'd to go home, as foon as the Survey of the Difmal 
was finifht ; He met with this Indulgence for a Reafbn that 
might very well have excufl: his coming at all ; Namely, that he 
was lately marrv'd. 

What remain'd of the Drudgery for this Seafon was left to 
Mr. Mofely, who had hitherto acted only in the capacity of a 
Commiflioner. They offer'd to employ Mr. Jofeph Mayo as 
their Surveyor in Mr. Swan's ftead, but He thought it not proper 
to accept of it, becaufe he had hitherto Acted as a Volunteer in 
behalf of Virginia, and did not care to change Sides, tho' it might 
have been to his Advantage. 

The line was advanc'd this day 6 Miles and 35 chains, the -50 
Woods being pretty clear, and interrupted with no Swamp, or 
other wet Ground. The Land hereabout had all the Marks of 
Poverty, being for the moft Part Sandy and full of Pines. This 
kind of Ground, tho' unfit for Ordinary Tillage, will however 
bring Cotton and Potatoes in Plenty, and Confequently Food 
and Raiment to fuch as are eafily contented, and, like the Wild 
Irifh, find more Pleafure in Lazinefs than Luxury. 

It alfo makes a Shift to produce Indian-corn, rather by the 
Felicity of the climate than by the Fertility of the Soil. They 
who are more Induftrious than their Neighbours may make what 
Quantity of tar they pleafe, tho' indeed they are not always fure 
of a Market for it. 

The Method of burning Tar in Sweden and Mufcovy Succeeds 
not well in this Warmer Part of the World. It fcems they kill 

64 The Hijhry of the 

1729 the Pine-Trees, by barkhig them quite round at a certain Height, 

March which in thofe cold countreys brings down the Turpentine into 

""^ the Stump in a Year's time. But experience has taught us that 

in warm Climates the Turpentine will not fo eafily defcend, but 

is either fixt in the upper parts of the Tree, or fryed out by the 

intenfc Heat of the Sun. 

Care was taken to Erect a Poft in Every Road that our Line 
ran thro', with Virginia carv'd on the North-Side of it, and 
Carolina on the South, that the Bounds might every where ap- 
pear. In the Evening the Surveyors took up their Quarters at 
the Houfe of one Mr. Parker, who, by the Advantage of a better 
Spot of Land than Ordinary, and a more induftrious Wife, lives 
comfortably, and has a very neat plantation. 
^j It rain'd a little this Morning, but this, happening again upon a 
Sunday, did not interrupt our Bufinefs. However the Surveyors 
made no Scruple of protracting and platting off their work upon 
that good day, becaufe it was rather an Amufement than a 

Here the Men feafted on the fat of the Land, and believing 
the dirtied part of their work was over, had a more than Ordi- 
nary Gaiety of Heart. We chriften'd two of our Landlord's 
children, which might have remained Infidels all their lives, had 
not we carry'd Chriitianity home to his own Door. 

The Truth of it is, our Neighbours of North Carolina are 
not fo zealous as to go much out of their way to procure this 
benefit for their children : Otherwife, being fo near Virginia, 
they might, without exceeding much Trouble, make a Journey 
to the next Clergyman, upon i'o good an Errand. 

And indeed fhould the Neighbouring Minifters, once in two 
or three years, vouchfafe to take a turn among thefe Gentiles, to 
baptize them and their children, twould look a little Apoilolical, 
and they might hope to be requited for it hereafter, if that be 
not thought too long to tarry for their Reward. 

Dividing Line. 65 

The Surveyors getting now upon better Ground, quite dif- r-20 
engag'd from Underwoods, pufht on the Line almofr. 12 Miles. April 1 
They left Sommerton Chappcl near 2 Miles to the Northward, * *"~ 
fo that there was now no Place of Publick Worihip left in the 
whole Province of North Carolina. 

The high Land of North Carolina was barren, and cover'd 
with a deep Sand ; and the Low Grounds were wet and boggy, 
infomuch that feveral of our Horfes were mir'd, and gave us 
frequent Opportunitvs to fhew our Horfemanfhip. 

The Line cut William Spight's Plantation in two, leaving 
little more than his dwelling Houfe and Orchard in Virginia* 
Sundry other Plantations were Split in the fame unlucky Manner, 
which made the Owners accountable to both Governments. 
Wherever we palled we conftantly found the Borderers laid it to 
Heart if their Land was taken into Virginia : They chofe much 
rather to belong to Carolina, where they pay no Tribute, either 
to God or to Ctefar. 

Another reafon was, that the Government there is fo Loofe, 
and the Laws fo feebly executed, that, like thofe in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Sydon formerly, every one docs juft what feems 
good in his own Eyes. If the Governor's hands have been 
weak in that Province, under the Authority of the Lord Pro- 
prietors, much weaker then were the hands of the Magiftrate, 
who, tho' he might have had Virtue enough to endeavour to 
punifh OfFendors, which very rarely happen'd, yet that vertuc 
had been quite Impotent, for want of Ability to put it in execu- 

. Befides, their might have been fomc Danger, perhaps, in ven- 
turing to be fo rigorous, for fear of undergoing the Fate of an 
hone ft Juftice in Corotuck Precinct. This bold Magiftrate, it 
feems, taking upon him to order a fellow to the Stocks, for be- 
ing disorderly in his Drink, was, for his intemperate Zeal, cany'd 

66 The Bijhry of the 

1729 thither himfelf, and narrowly cfcap'd being whippt b) the Rabble 
-A-P r ^ into the Bargain. 

'""""" v '~"~ This eafy day's work carried the Line to the Banks of Somer- 
ton-Creek, that runs out of Chowan River, a little below the 
Mouth of Nottoway. 
2 In lefs than a Mile from Somerton creek the Line was carry 'd 
to Black-water, which is the Name of the upper Part of Chowan, 
running fome Miles above the Mouth of Nottoway. It muft 
be obferv'd that Chowan, after taking a compafs round the moft 
beautiful part of North Carolina, empties itfelf into Albermarle 
Sound, a few Miles above Edenton. The Tide flows 7 or 8 
miles higher than where the River changes its Name, and is 
Navigable thus high for any fmall veffel. Our Line interfered 
it exactly half a Mile to the northward of the mouth of Notto- 
way. However, in Obedience to his Majefty's Command, we 
directed the Surveyors to come down the River as far as the 
Mouth of Nottoway, in order to continue our true Weft Line 
from thence. 

Thus we found the Mouth of Nottoway to lye no more than 
half a Minute farther to the Northward than Mr. Lawfon 1 bad 
formerly done. That Gentleman's Obfervation, it feems, placed 
it in 36 30', and our Working made it out to be 36 30V — a 
very inconiiderable Variance. 

The Surveyors croft the River over againft the Middle of the 
Mouth of Nottaway, where it was about 80 yards wide. From 
thence they ran the Line about half a Mile through a dirty 
Pocofon, as far as an Indian Field. Here we took up our 
Lodging in a moift Situation, having the Pocofon above meil- 
tion'd on one Side of us, and a Swamp on the other. 

In this Camp 3 of the Mcherin Indians made us a Vilit. They 
told us that tne Small Remains of their Nation had deferted 

1 Lawfon's Hiftory tf Ncrtf; Carolina^ in the fame. 

Dividing Line. 67 

their Ancient Town, fituated near the Mouth cf Mehe.'in River, 17 ?q 
for fear of the Catauhas, who had kill'd 14 of their People April 
the Year before ; and the few that Survived that Calamity, had 
taken refuge amongft the Englifh, on the Eaft fide of Chowan. 
Tho', if the complaint of thefe Indians were true, they are hardly 
ufed by our Carolina Friends. But they are the lefs to be 
pitied, becaufe they have ever been reputed the moft falfe and 
treacherous to the Engliih of all the Indians in the Neighbour- 

Nor far from the Place where we lay, I obferv'd a large Oak 
which had been blown up by the Roots, the Body of which was 
Shiver'd into perfect Strings, and was, in truth, the moft Violent 
Effects of Lightning I ever faw. 

But the moft curious Inirance of that dreadful meteor hap- 
pen'd at York, where a man was kill'd near a Pine Tree in 
which the Lightening made a Hole before it Struck the Man, 
and left an exact Figure of the Tree upon his Brcaft, with all 
its Branches, to the wonder of all that beheld it, in which I fhall 
be more particular hereafter. 

We made another tryal of the Variation in this place, and 
found it fome Minutes lefs than we had done at Coratuck-Inlet ; 
but fo fmall a Difference might eafily happen thro' fome defect 
in one or other of the Obfervations, and, therefore, we alter'd 
not our compafs for the Matter. 

By the advantage of clear woods, the Line was extended 12 o 
miles and three Quarters, as far as the Banks of Mehcrin. 
Tho' the Mouth of this River lye 15 miles below the Mouth 
of Nottawav, yet it winds fo much to the Northward, that we 
came upon it, after running this Small. Diftance. During the 
flrft 7 Miles, wc obferved the Soil to be poor and Sandy ; but as 
we approacht Mcherin it grew better, tho' there it was cut to 
pieces by Sundry Miry Branches, which difcharge themfelves 

68 The Hijtory of the 

I72Q into that River, Several of our Horfes plunged up to the Saddle- 
April Skirts, and were not difengaged without Difficulty. 
^~~^ The latter Part of our Day's work was pretty laborious, be- 
caufe of the unevennefs of the wav, and becaufs the low Ground 
of the River was full of Cyprefs-Snags, as Sharp and Dangerous 
to our Horfes as fo many chevaux-de-frize. We found the 
whole diftance from the Mouth of Nottaway to Meherin River, 
where our Line interfered it, thirteen Miles and a Quarter. ' 

It was hardly poilible to find a level large enough on the 
Banks of the River whereupon to pitch our Tent. But tho' the 
Situation was, on that Account, not very convenient for us, yet 
it was for our poor Horfes, by reafon of the Plenty of Small 
Reeds on which they fed voracioufly. 

Thefe Reeds are green here all the Year round, and will keep 
cattle in tolerable good Plight during the Winter. But when- 
ever the Hogs come where they are, they deftroy them in a 
Short time, by ploughing up their Roots, of which, unluckily, 
they are very fond. 

The River was in this place about as wide as the River Jor- 
dan, that is,' 40 Yards, and wou'd be Navigable very high for 
flat Bottom-Boats and Canoes, if it were not choakt up with 
large Trees, brought down by every Frefh. Tho' the Banks 
were full 20 feet high from the Surface of the Water, yet we 
faw certain Marks of their having been Overflow'd. 

Thefe Narrow Rivers that run high up into the Country are 
Subject to frequent Inundations, when the Waters are roll'd 
down with fuch Violence as to carry all before them. The 
Logs that are then floated, are very fatal to the bridges built 
over thefe rivers, Which can hardly be contriv'd Strong enough 
to ftand againft fo much Weight and Violence join'd together. 

The Ifle of Wight County begins about 3 Miles to the Eaft 

Dividing Line. 69 

of Mchcrin River, being divided from that of Nanfimond only 1720 
by a Line of Markt trees. April 

The River was here hardly fordable, tho' the Scafon had been "• "~~ 
very dry. The Banks too were fo Steep that our Horfes were 
forced to climb like Mules to get up them. Neverthelefs we 
had the Luck to recover the Oppofite Shore without Damage. 

We halted for half an hour at Charles Anderfon's, who lives 
on the Weftern Banks of the River, in order to chriften one of 
his children. In the mean time, the Survevors extended the 
Line 2 Miles and 39 chains, in which iinall Diftancc Mchcrin 
River was fo ferpentine, that they croft it 3 times. 

Then we went on to Mr. Kinchin's, a Man of Figure and 
Authority in N Carolina, who lives about a Mile to the South- 
ward of the Piace where the Surveyors left off. By the Benefit 
of a little pains, and good Management, this worthy Magiftrate 
lives in much Affluence. 

Amongft other Infiances of his Induftry, he had planted a 
good Orchard, which is not common in that Indolent climate ; 
nor is it at all Strange, that fuch improvident People, who take- 
no thought for the Morrow, fliou'd fave themfelves the Trouble 
to make Improvements that will not pay them for feveral \ ears 
to come. Tho' if they cou'd trull futurity for any thing, they 
certainly wou'd for Cyder, which they are fo fond of, that they 
generally drink it before it has done working, left the fermenta- 
tion might unluckily turn it Sovvr. 

It is an Obfervation, which rarely fails of being true, both in 
Virginia and Carolina, that thofe who take care to plant good 
Orchards are, in their General characters, Induitrious People. 
This held good in our Landlord, who had many Houfes built 
on this Plantation, and every One kept in decent Repair. His 
Wife, too, was tidy, his Furniture clean, his Pewter bright, and 
nothing feem'd to be wanting to make his Home comfortable. 

Mr. Kinchin made us the Compliment of his Houfe, but be- 

jo The Hijhry of the 

1 729 caufc we were willing to be as little troublefome as poflible, we 
April ordcr'd the Tent to be pitch'd in his Orchard, where the Blof- 
~~ v ~^ ibms of the Apple Trees contributed not a little to the fweet- 
nefs of our Lodging. 

Becaufe the Spring was now pretty forward, and the'Rattle- 
Snakes began to crawl out of their Winter-Quarters, and might 
grow dangerous, both to the Aden and their Horfes, it was de- 
termin'd to proceed no farther with the Line till the Fall. Be- 
fides, the Uncommon Fatigue the People had undergone for near 
6 Weeks together, and the Inclination they all had to vifit their 
RefpccTive Family's, made a Recefs highly reasonable. 

The Surveyors were employ'd great part of the Day, in form- 
ing a Correct, and Elegant Map of the Line, from Corotuck- 
Inlet to the Place where they left ofF. On carting up the ac- 
count in the molt accurate manner, they found the whole dis- 
tance we had run to amount to 73 Miles and 13 chains. Of 
the Map they made two fair copies, which agreeing exaclly, 
were fubferib'd by the Commimoners of both colonies, and one 
of them was delivered to thofe on the Part of Virginia, and the 
other to thofe on the Part of North Carolina. 
6 7 hus we finifh'd our Spring Campaign, and having taken 
leave of our Carolina-Friends, and agreed to meet them again 
the Tenth of September following, at the fame Mr. Kinchin's, 
in order to continue the Line, we croflt Meherin River near a 
Quarter of a Mile from the Houfe. About ten Miles from 
that we halted at Mr. Kindred's Plantation, where we Chriften'd 
two Children. 

It happen'd that fonic of I lie cf Wight militia Were exerciling 
in the Adjoining Pafture, and there were Females enough at- 
tending that Martial Appearance to form a more invincible corps. 

Ten miles farther wc palled- Nottoway River at Bolton's 
Ferry, and took up our Lodgings about three Miles from thence, 
at the Houfe of Richard Parker, an honert Planter, whole Labours 

Dividhig Line. y\ 

were rewarded with Plenty,' which, in this country is the Con- i~-, ( . 
ftant Portion of the Induftrious. April 

The Next day being Sunday, we order'd Notice to be fent to *" '■ 
all the Neighbourhood that there wou'd be a Sermon at this 
Place, and an Opportunity of Chriilcning their Children. Bui 
the Likelihood of Rain got the better of their Devotion, and 
what perhaps, Alight Still be a Stronger motive of their Curiofity. 
In the Morning we defpatcht a runner to the Nottoway Town, 
to let the Indians know we intended them a Vifit that Evening, 
and our honeft Landlord was fo kind as to be our Pilot thither, 
being about 4 Miles from his Houfe. 

Accordingly in the Afternoon we marcht in good Order to 
the Town, where the Female Scouts, llation'd on an Eminence 
for that purpofe, had no fooner fpy'd us, but they gave Notice 
of our Approach to their Fellow-Citizens by continual Whoops 
and Cries, which cou'd not pofiibly have been more difrnal at 
the Sight of their mofl implacable Enemvs. 

This Signal AlTembled all their Great Men, who receiv'd us 
in a Body, and conducted us into the Fort. This Fort was a 
Square Piece of Ground, inclof'd with Subflantial Puncheons, 
or Strong Palifades, about ten feet high, and leaning a little out- 
wards, to make a Scalade more difficult. 

Each fide of the Square might be about 100 Yards long, with 
Loop-holes at proper Diftances, through which they may fire 
upon the Enemy. 

Within this Inclofure we found Bark Cabanes Sufficient to 
lodge all their people, in Cafe they fhould be obliged to retire 
thither. Thefe Cabanes are no other but Clofe Arbours made 
of Saplings, arched at the top, and cover'd (o well with Bark as 
to be proof againft all Weather. The fire is made in the Mid- 
dle, according to the Hibernian Fafhion, the Srrroak whereof 
finds no other Vent but at the Door, and fo keeps the whole 
family Warm, at the Expenfe both of their Eyes and Complexion. 

72 The Hiftory of the 

1729 The Indians have no {landing Furniture in their Cabanes but 

Apnl Hurdles to repofe their Perfons upon, which they cover with 

w ~^ f ^"^ Mats or Deer-fkins.. We were conducted to the befb Appart- 

ments in the Fort, which juft before had been made ready for 

our Reception, and adorn'd with new Mats, that were fweet and 


The Young Men had Painted themfelves in a Hideous A4an- 
ner, not fo much for Ornament as Terror. In that frightful 
Equipage they cntertain'd us with Sundry War-Dances, wherein 
they endeavour'd to look as formidable as poflible. The Inftru- 
ment they danct to was an Indian-drum, that is, a large Gourd 
with a Skin bra£t tort over the Mouth of it. The Dancers all 
Sang to this Mufick, keeping exact Time with their feet, while 
their Heads and Arms were fcrew'd into a thoufand Menacing 

Upon this occafion the Ladies had array'd themfelves in all 
their hnery. They were Wrapt in their Red and Blue Match- 
Coats, thrown fo Negligcnly about them, that their Mehogony 
Skins appear'd in Several Parts, like the Lacedaemonian Damfels 
of Old. Their Hair was breeded with white and Blue Peak, 
and hung gracefully in a large Roll upon their Shoulders. 

This peak Coniifls of Small Cylinders cut out of a Conque- 
Shell, drillM through and Strung like Beads. It ferves them 
both for Money and Jewels, the Blue being of much greater 
Value than the White, for the fame reafon that Ethiopian Mif- 
trefles in France are dearer than French, becaufe they are more 
Scarce. The Women wear Necklaces and Bracelets of thefe 
precious Materials, when they have a mind to appear lovely. 
Tho' their complexions be a little Sad-Colour'd, yet their Shapes 
are very Strait and well proportion'd. Their Faces are Seldom 
handfome, yet they have an Air of Innocence and Bamfulnefs, 
that with a little lefs dirt wou'd not fail to make them defirable. 
Such Charms might have had their full Effect upon Men who 

Dividing Line. 73 

liar] been fo long deprived of female conversation, but that the 1720 
whole Winter's Soil was fo crufled on the Skins of thofe dark April 
Angels, that it requir'd a very Strong Appetite to approach them. ^ 
The Bear's oylj with which they anoint their Perfons all over, 
makes their Skins Soft, and at the Same time protects them from 
every Species of Vermin that ufe to be troubleiomc to other un- 
cleanly People. 

We were unluckily fo many, that they cou'd not well make 
us the Complement of Bed-fellows, according to the Indian 
Rules of Hofpitality, tho' a grave Matron whifper'd one of the 
Commiflioners very civilly in the Ear, that if her Daughter had 
been but one year Older, fhe fhould have been at his Devotion. 

It is by no means a lofs of Reputation among the Indians, for 
Damfels that are Single to have Intrigues with the Men ; on the 
contrary, they account it an Argument of Superior Merit to be 
liked by a great Number of Gallants. However, like the Ladys 
that Game they are a little Mercenary in their Amours, and 
feldom beftow their Favours out of Stark Love and Kindnefs. 
But after thefe Women have once appropriated their Charms 
by Marriage, they are from thenceforth faithful to their Vows, 
and will hardly ever be tempted by an Agreeable Gallant, or be 
provokt by a Brutal or even by a fumbling Huiband to go aftray. 

The little Work that is done among the Indians is done by 
the poor Women, while the men are quite Idle, or at mod 
employ'd only in the Gentlemanly Diveriions of Hunting and 

In this, as well as in their Wars, they now ufe nothing but 
Fire-Arms, which they purchafe of the EngliOl for Skins. Bows 
and Arrows are grown into difufe, except only amongir. their 
Boys. Nor is it ill Policy, but on the contrary very prudent, 
thus to furnifh the Indians with Fire-Arms, becaufe it makes 
them depend entirely upon the Englifh, not only for their Trade, 
but even for their fubfiitence, Belides, they were really able to 

74 %be Hijiory of the 

1729 do more mifchief, while they made ufe of Arrows, of which they 

April wou'd let Silently fly Several in a Minute with Wonderful Dex- 

""~~ > " terity, whereas now they hardly ever difcharge their Fire-locks 

more than once, which they infidioufly do from behind a Tree, 

and then retire as nimbly as the Dutch Horfe Uf'd to do now 

and then formerly in Flanders. 

We put the Indians to no expenfe, but only of a little Corn 
for our Horfcs, for which in Gratitude we cheer'd their hearts 
with what Rum we had left, which they love better than they 
do their Wives and Children. 

Tho' thefe Indians dwell among the Englifh, and fee in what 
Plenty a little Induftry enables them to live, yet they chufe to 
continue in their Stupid Idlenefs, and to Suffer all the Inconven- 
iences of Dirt, Cold, and "Want, rather than to difturb their 
heads With care, or defile their Hands with labour. 

The whole Number of People belonging to the Notoway 
Town, if you include Women and Children, amount to about 
200. Thefe are the only Indians of any confequence now re- 
maining within the Limits of Virginia. The reft are either 
removed, or dwindled to a very inconfiderable Number, either 
by deftroying one another, or elfe by the Small-Pox and other 
Difeafes. Tho' nothing has been {o fatal to them as their un- 
governable Paflion for Rum, with which, I am forry to fay it, 
they have been but too liberally fupply'd by the Englifh that live 
near them. 

And here I mufr lament the bad Succefs Mr. Boyle's Charity 
has hitherto had towards converting any of thefe poor Flealhens 
to Chriftianity. Many children of our Neighbouring Indians 
have been brought up in the * College of William and Mai y. 
They have been taught to read and write, and have been care- 
fully Inftructed in the Principles of the Chriftian Religion, till 
they came to be men. Yet after they return'd home, inftcad 

Dividing Line. 75 

of civilizcing and converting the reft, they have immediately i'>2q 
Relapt into Infidelity and Barbarifm April 

And fome of them too have made the worff. ufe of the Know- """*" 
ledge they acquir'd among the Englifh, by employing it againfr. 
their Benefactors. Befides, as they unhappily forget all the 
good they learn, and remember the 111, they are apt to be more 
vicious and diforderly than the refl of their Countrymen. 

I ought not to quit this Subject without doing Juftice to the 
great Prudence of Colo Spotfvvood in this Affair. That Gen- 
tleman was lieut Governor of Virginia when Carolina was en- 
gaged in a Bloody War with the Indians. At that critical Time 
it was thought expedient to keep a Watchful Eye upon our 
Tributary Savages, who we knew had nothing to keep them to 
their Duty but their Fears. 

Then it was that he demanded of each Nation a Competent 
Number of their great Men's Children to be fent to the College, 
where they ferv'd as fo many Hoflages for the good Behaviour 
of the Reft, and at the fame time were themfelves principled in 
the Chriftian Religion. He alio Plac'd a School-Maftcr among 
the Saponi Indians, at the falary of Fifty Pounds P Annum, to 
inftrucl: their Children. The Perfon that undertook that Char- 
itable work was Mr. Charles Griffin, a Alan of a good Family, 
who by the Innocence of his Life, and the Sweetnefs of his 
Temper, was perfectly well quaiify'd for that pious undertaking. 
Befides, he had fo much the Secret of mixing Pleafure with in- 
ftruction, that he had not a Scholar, who did not love him affec- 

Such Talents muft needs have been bleft with a Proportion- 
able Succefs, had he not been unluckily remov'd to the College, 
by which he left the good work he had begun unfinifht. In 
fhort, all the Pains he had taken among the Infidels had no other 
Effect but to make them fomething cleanlier than other Indians 

j 6 The Hi/lory of the 

1J2() The Care Colo Spotfwood took to tincture the Indian Child- 
April ren vv ; t h Christianity produe'd the following Epigram, which 
"~^ was not publifht during his Administration, for fear it might then 
have lookt like flattery. 

Long has the Furious Prieft affay'd in Vain, 
With Sword and Faggot, Infidels to gain, 
But now the Milder Soldier wifely tryes 
By Gentler Methods to unveil their Eyes. 
Wonders apart, he knew 'twere vain t'engagc 
The fix'd Preventions of Mif^uided Age. 
With fairer Hopes he forms the Indian Youth 
To early Manners, Probity and Truth. 
The Lyon's whelp thus on the Lybian Shore 
Is tam'd and Gentled by the Artful Moor, 
Not the Grim Sire, inured to Blood before. 

I am forry I can't give a Better Account of the State of the 
Poor Indians with refpect to Chriftianity, altho' a great deal of 
Pains has been and ftill continues to be taken with them. For 
my Part, I mull: be of Opinion, as I hinted before, that there is 
but one way of Converting thefe poor Infidels, and reclaiming 
them from Barbarity, and that is, Charitably to intermarry with 
them, according to the Modern Policy of the moll ChrifUan 
King in Canada and Louifiana. 

Had the Englifh done this at the firft Settlement of the 
Colony, the Infidelity of the Indians had been worn out at this 
Day, with their Dark Complexions, and the Country had 
fwarm'd with People more than it does with Infecfts. 

It was certainly an unreafonable Nicety, that prevented their 
entering into fo good-Natur'd an Alliance. All Nations of 
men have the fame Natural Dignity, and we all know that verv 
bright Talents may be lodg'd under a very dark Skin. The 
principal Difference between one People and another proceeds 
only from the Different Opportunities of Improvement. 

The Indians by no means want understanding, and are in 

Dividing Line. yy 

their Figure tall and well-proporiion'd. Even their Copper- 1728 
colour'd Complexion wou'd admit of Blanching, if not in the April 
firfr, at the fart heft in the Second Generation. ~^r— 

I may fafely venture to fay, the Indian Women would have 
made altogether as Honeft Wives for the firft Planters, as the 
Damfels they uPd to purchafe from aboard the Ships. It is 
Strange, therefore, that any good Chriftian Shou'd have refufed 
a wholefome, Straight Bed-fellow, when he might have had lo 
fair a Portion with her, as the Merit of faving her Soul. 

We reited on our clean Mats very comfortably, tho' alone, and 
the next Aiorning went to the Toilet of fome of the Indian 
Ladys, where, what with the Charms of their Perfons and the 
Smoak of their Apartments, we were almoft blinded. They 
offer'd to give us Silk-Grafs Bafkets of their own making, which 
we Modeftly refufed, knowing that an Indian prefent, like that 
of a Nun, is a Liberality put out to Intereft, and a Bribe plac'd 
to the greateft Advantage. 

Our Chaplain obferv'd with concern, that the Ruffles of 
Some of our Fellow Travellers were a little difcolour'd with 
pochoon, wherev.'ith the good Man had been told thofe Ladies 
uf 'd to improve their invifible charms. 

About 10 a Clock we marched out of Town in good order, 
& the War Captains faluted us with a Volley of Small-Arms. 
From thence we proceeded over Black-water Bridge to colo* 
Henry Harrifons, where we congratulated each other upon our 
Return into Chriitendom. 

Thus ended our Progrefs for this Seafon, which we may 
juftly fay was attended with al! the Succefs that could be ex- 
pected. Befides the Punctual Performance of what was Com- 
mitted to us, we had the Plcafure to- bring back every one ot 
our Company in perfect Health. And this we mud acknow- 
ledge to be a Singular Blefflncr, confidering the Difficulties and 
Dangers to which thev had been cxpof'd. 

• 7 8 The Hijlory of the 

1729 We had reafon to fear the many Waters and Sunken Grounds, 

bept. t h ro ' which We were obliged to wade, might have thrown the 

men into Sundry Acute diftempers ; efpecially the Difmal, 

where the Soil was fo full of Water, and the Air fo full of 

Damps, that nothing but a Dutchman cou'd live in them. 

Indeed the Foundation of all our Succefs was the Exceeding 
dry Seafon. It rain'd during the whole Journey but rarely, 
and then, as when Herod built his Temple, only in the Night 
or upon the Sabbath, when it was no hinderance at all to our 

The tenth of September being thought a little too foon for 
the Commiflioners to meet, in order to proceed on the Line, 
on account of Snakes, t'was agreed to put it oft" to the twentieth 
of the fame Month, of which due Notice was fent to the Caro- 
lina-Commifli oners. 
19 We, on the part of Virginia, that we might be fure to be 
punctual, arriv'd at Mr. Kinchin's, the place appointed, on the 
19th, after a Journey of three days, in which nothing Remark- 
able happen'd. 

We found three of the Carolina-Commiflioners had taken 
Poflefllon of the Houfe, having come thither by water from 
Edenton. By the Great Quantity of Provifions thefe Gentle- 
men brought, and the few men they had to eat them, we 
were afraid they intended to carry the Line to the South fea. 

They had 50010s of bacon and dry'd Beef, and 50olbs of 
Bifket, and not above three or four men. The misfortune 
was, they forgot to provide Horfes to carry their good things, 
or clle trufted to the Incertainty of hireing them here, which, 
confidering the Place, was leaving too' 7 much to that Jilt, 

On our part we had taken better Care, being completely 
furnifht with every thing ncccflary for tranfporting our Baggage 


Dividing Line. 79 

and Provifions. Indeed we brought no other Provifions out 
with us but iooolbs of Bread, and had Faith enough to depend Sept. 
on Providence for our Meat, being deiirous to hufband the " N "~"' 
publick Money as much as pofftble. 

We had no lefs than 20 men, befides the Chaplain, the Sur- 
veyors and all the Servants, to be Subfifled upon this Bread. 
However, that it might hold out the better, our men had been 
Order'd to provide themfelves at Home with Provifion for 
Ten days, in which time we judg'd we mould get beyond the 
Inhabitants, where Foreft-Game of all forts was like to be plenty 
at that time of the Year. 

This being the day appointed for our Rendezvous, great part 
of it was Spent in the careful fixing our Baggage and AfTem- 
bling our Men, who were order'd to meet us here. We took 
care to examine their Arms, and made proof of the Powder 
provided for the Expedition. 

Our Provifion-Horfes had been hinder'd by the rain from 
coming up exactly at the Day ; but this Delay was the lefs 
Difappointment, by reafon of the ten days' Subfiftence the men 
had been directed to provide for themfelves. 

Mr. Mofeley did not join us till the afternoon, nor Mr. Swan 
till Several Days after. 

Mr. Kinchin had unadvifedly fold the Men a little Brandy ot 
his own making, which produced much diforder, caufing feme 
to be too cholerick, and others too loving ; Infomuch that a 
Damfel, who aflifted in the Kitchen, had certainly Suffcr'd what 
the Nuns call Martyrdom, had (he not capitulated a little too 

This outrage would have call'd for fome fevere Difcipline, 
had fte not bafhfullv withdrawn herfelf early in the Morning, 
& fo carry'd off the Evidence. 

We delpatcht away the Surveyors without Lofs of Time, 
who, with all their diligence, could carry the Line no farther 

7 r 

8o Tfa Hi/lory of the 

IJ2Q t' ian 3 Miles and 176 Poles, by reafon the Low-Ground was 

Sept. one entire Thicket. In that diilance they croft Mcherin River 

" v the 4th time. In the mean while the Virginia-Commiffioners 

thought proper to conduct their Baggage a farther way about, 

for the Convenience of a clearer Road. 

The Carolina-Gentlemen did at length, more by Fortune 
than forecaft, hire a clumfy Vehicle, fomcthing like a cart, to 
transport their Effects as far as Roanoak. This wretched Ma- 
chine, at fir ft Setting out, met with a very rude choque, that 
broke a Cafe-Bottle of Cherry Brandy in fo unlucky a Manner 
that not one precious Drop was faved. This Melancholy Be- 
ginning foreboded an unprofperous Journey, and too quick a 
Return, to the Perfons moft immediately concern'd. 

In our way we croflt Fountains Creek, wl ich runs into Mc- 
herin River, fo call'd from the difafter of an unfortunate Indian 
Trader who had formerly been drowned in it, and, like Icarus, 
left his Name to that fatal ftream. We took up our Ouarters 
on the Plantation of John Hill, where we pitcht our Tent, with 
defign to tarry till fuch time as the Surveyors cou'd work their 
way to us. 
22 This being Sunday, we had an Opportunity of refting from 
our Labours. The expectation of fuch a Novelty as a Sermon 
in thefe Parts brought together a Numerous Congregation. 
When the Sermon was over, our Chaplain did his part towards 
making Eleven of them Chriftians. 

Several of our men had Intermitting feavers, but were foon 
reftor'd to their Health again by proper Remedies. Our chief 
Medicine was Dogwood Bark, which we ufed, initead of that 
of Peru, with good Succefs. Indeed, it was given in lareer 
Quantity, but then, to make the Patients amends, they fwaL 
lowed much fewer Dofes. 

In the afternoon our Provision- Horfes arrived Safe in the 
Camp. They had met with very heavy Rains, but, thank God, 
not a Single Bifket receiv'd the leaft Damage therebv. 

Dividing Line. 8 1 

We were furnifht by the Neighbours with very lean Chccfe 1729 
and very fat Mutton, upon which occafion twill not be improper Sept. 
to draw one conclufion, from the Evidence of North Carolina, 
that Sheep would thrive much better in the Woods than in Paf- 
ture Land, provided a careful Shepherd were employed to keep 
them from Straying, and, by the help of Dogs, to proteil them 
alfo from the wolves. 

The Surveyors came to us at Night, tho' they had not brought 23 
the Line fo far as our Camp, for which reafon we thought it 
needlefs to go forward till they came up with us. They cou'd 
run no more than 4 Miles and 5 Poles, becaufe the Ground was 
every where grown up with thick 

The Soil here appear'd to be very good, tho' much broken 
betwixt Fountain creek and Roanoak River. The Line croft 
Meherin the 5th and lafl time, nor were our People forry to 
part with a Stream the Meanders of which had given them fo 
much Trouble. 

Our Hunters brought us four wild Turkeys, which at that 
Seafon began to be fat and very delicious, efpecially the Hens. 

Thefe Birds feem to be of the Bullard kind, and fly heavily. 
Some of them are exceedingly large, and weigh upwards ot 40 
Pounds; Nay, fome bold Hiftorians venture to fay, upwards of 
50. They run very faft, ftretching forth their Wings all the 
time, like the Oftrich, by way of Sails to quicken their Speed. 

They rooft commonly upon very high Trees, Standing near 
fome River or Creek, and are fo ftupify'd at the Sight of Fire, 
that if you make a Blaze in the Night near the Place where they 
rooft, you may fire upon them Several times fucceflively, before 
they will dare to fly away. 

Their Spurs are fo Sharp and Strong that the Indians ufed 
formerly to point their Arrows with them, tho' now they point 
them with a Sharp white Stone. In the Spring the Turkcy- 

8 2 The Hijiory of the 

I?29 Cocks begin to gobble, which is the Language wherein they 
Sept. make Love. 

; -~*~' . It rain'd very hard in the Night, with a violent Storm of 
Thunder and Lightening, which oblig'd us to trench in our 
Tent all round, to carry off the Water that fell upon it. 

So foon as the men could dry their Blankets, we fent out the 
24 Survevors, who now meeting with more favourable Grounds, 
advane'd 'the line 7 Miles and 82 Poles. However, the Com- 
mimoneis did not think proper to decamp that day, believing 
' they might eafily overtake the Surveyors the next. In the mean 
time the } - lent out fome of their moft expert Gunners, who 
brought in four more wild Turkeys, 

This part of the Country being very proper for raifmg Cattle 
and Hogs, we obferv'd the Inhabitants lived in great plenty with- 
out killing themfelves with Labour. 

I found near our Camp fome Plants of that kind of Rattle- 
Snake Root, called Star-grafs. The Leaves moot out circularly, 
and grow Horifontally and near the Ground. The Root is in 
Shape not unlike the Rattle of that Serpent, and is a Strong 
Antidote againft the Bite of it. It is very bitter, and where it 
meets with any Poifon, works by Violent Sweats, but where it 
meets with none, has no Senfible Operation but that of putting 
the Spirits into a great Hurry, and fo of promoting Perfpiration. 
The Rattle-make has an utter Antipathy to this Plant, info- 
much that if you Smear vour hands with the Juice of it, you 
may handle the Viper Safely. Thus much I can fay on my 
own Experience, that once in July, when thefe Snakes are in 
their seated Vigour, I befmear'd a Dog's Nofe with the Pow- 
der of this Root, and made him trample on a large Snake Several 
times, which, however, was fo far from biting him, that it per- 
fectly Sicken'd at the Dog's Approach, and turn'd its Head from 
him with the Utmoft Averfion. 

Dividing Line. 83 

Our Chaplain, to Shew his Zeal, made an Excurfion of 6 1729 
Miles to chriften 2 children, but without the leaft regard to the Sept. 
good Chear at thefe Solemnities. 

The Surveyors taking the Advantage of clear Woods, puflit 25 
on the Line 7 Miles and 40 Poles. In the mean time the 
Commiffioners marcht with the Baggage about 1 2 miles, and 
took up their Quarters near the Banks of the Beaver Pond, 
(which is one Branch of Fountain's creek,) juft by the place 
where the Surveyors were to finifh their day's work. 

In our march one of the men kill'd a Small Rattle-Snake, 
which had no more than two Rattles. Thole Vipers remain in 
Vigour generally till towards the End of September, or Some- 
times later, if the Weather continue a little warm. On this 
consideration we had provided three Several Sorts of Rattle- 
Snake-Root, made up into proper Dofes, and ready for imme- 
diate ufe, in cafe any one of the Men or their Horfes had been 


We crofit Fountain's Creek once more in our Journey this 
day, and found the Grounds very Rich, notwithstanding they 
were broken and Stony. 

Near the place where we encampt the county of Brunfwick 
is divided from the Me of Wight. Thefe Counties run quite 
on the back of Surry and Prince George, and are laid out in 
very irregular Figures. 

As a Proof the Land mended hereabouts, we found the Planta- 
tions began to grow thicker by much than we had found them 
lower down. 

We hurry'd away the Surveyors without Lofs of time, who 26 
extended the Line 10 Miles and 160 Poles, the Grounds prov- 
ing dry and free from Under-woods. By the way the chain- 
carriers kill'd two more Rattle-Snakes, which I own was a little 
ungrateful, becaufe two or three of the Men had Strided over 
them without receiving any Hurt; tho' one of thefe Vipers had 

84 The Hipry of the 

1729 made bold to Strike at one of the Baggage Horfes, as he went 

Sept. along, but by good Luck his Teeth only grazed on the hoof, 

""v"— ' without doing him any Damage. However, thefe Accidents 

were, I think, ib many Arguments that we had very good Reafon 

to defer our coming out till the 20th of September. 

We obferv'd Abundance of St. Andrew's Crofs in all the 
Woods we pa fled thro', which is the common Remedy ufed by 
the Indian traders to cure their horfes when they are bitten by 

It grows on a Strait Stem, about 18 Inches high, and bears a 
Yellow Flower on the Top, that has an Eye of Black in the 
Middle, with Several Pairs of Narrow Leaves Shooting out at 
right Angles from the Stalk over Sgainfl: one another. 

This Antidote grows Providentially all over the Woods, and 
upon all Sorts of Soil, that it may be every where at hand in 
Cafe a Difaiter mould Happen, and may be had all the hot 
Months while the Snakes are dangerous. 

About four a'clock in the Afternoon we took up our Quarters 
upon Caban Branch, which alfo difcharges itfelf into Fountain 
Creek. On our way we obierved Several Meadows cloth'd with 
very rank-Grafs, and Branches full of tall Reeds, in which Cattle 
keep themfelves fat good part of the Winter. But Hogs are as 
injurious to both as Goats are faid to be to Vines, and for that 
Reafon it was not lawful to Sacrifice them to Bacchus. We 
halted by the way to Chriften two Children at a Spring, where 
their Mothers waylaid us for that good Purpofe. 
27 It was ten of the clock before the Surveyors got to work, be- 
caufe fome of the Horfes had flraggled to a great Diftance from 
the Camp. Nevcrthelefs, meeting with Practicable Woods, 
they advanct the Line 9 Miles and 104 Poles. We croflt over 
Pea-Creek about four Miles from our Quarters, and, three Miles 
farther, Lizard-Creek, both which empty their Waters into 
Roanoak River. 

Dividing Line. 85 

Between thefc two Creeks a poor Man waited for us with five i*\>q 
Children to be baptiz'd, and we halted till the Ceremonv was Sept. 
ended. The Land feem'd to be very good, by the largenefs of Y ~~ 
the Trees, tho' very Stony. We proceeded as far as Pidgeon- 
Rooft-Creek, which alfo runs into Roanoak, and there Quar- 

We had not the pleafure of the Company of any of the Caro- 
lina-CommiiTioners in this day's March, except Mr. Mofelev's, 
the reft tarrying behind to wait the coming up of their Baggage- 
Cart, which they had now not feen nor heard (though the Wheels 
made a Difmal Noife) for feveral days paft. 

Indeed it was a very difficult Undertaking to conduct a Cart 
thro' fuch pathlefs and perplext Woods, and no wonder if its 
Motion was a little Planetary. We would have payd them the 
Complement of waiting for them, cou'd we have done it at any 
other Expenfe but that of the Publick. 

In the Stony Grounds we rode over we found great Quantity 
of the true Ipocoacanna, which in this part of the World is call'd 
Indian-Phyfick. This has Several Stalks growing up from the 
Same Root about a Foot high, bearing a Leaf refcmbling that of 
a Straw-Berry. It is not fo ftrong as that from Brazil, but has 
the fame happy Effects, If taken in Somewhat a larger Dole. It 
is an Excellent Vomit, and generally cures intermitting Fevers 
and Bloody Fluxes at once or twice taking. There is abund- 
ance of it in the upper part of the Country, where it delights 
moft in a Stony Soil intermixt with black Mold. 

Our Surveyors got early to work, yet cou'd forward the Line 2S 
but 6 miles and 121 Poles, becaufe of the uneven Grounds in 
the Neighbourhood of Roanoak, which they croilt in this Day's 

In that Place the River is 49 Poles wide, and rolls down a 
cryftal Stream of very Sweet water, Infomuch that when then* 
comes to be a great Monarch in this Part of the World, he will 

86 The Jiifiory of the 

j^ 2Q caufe all the Water for his own Table to be brought from 
Sept. Roanoak, as the great Kings of Perfia did theirs from the Nile 
— /-—'and Choafpis, becaufe the Waters of thofe Rivers were light, 
and not apt to corrupt.* 

The great Falls of Roanoak lie about 20 Miles lower, to 
which a Sloop of Moderate Burthen may come up. There are, 
befides thefe, many Smaller Falls above, tho' none that entirely 
intercept the Paflage of the River, as the great Ones do, by a 
Chain of Rocks for 8 Miles together. 

The River forks about 36 Miles higher, and both Branches 
are pretty equal in Breadth where they divide, tho' the Southern, 
now call'd the Dan, runs up the fartheft. That to the North 
runs away near North-weft, and is call'd the Staunton, and heads 
not far from the Source of Appamatuck River, while the Dan 
ftretches away pretty near Weft & runs clear thro' the great 

We did not follow the Surveyors till towards Noon, being 
detain'd in our camp to Chriften Several more Children. We 
were conducted a nearer way, by a famous Woodfman, call'd 
Epaphroditus Sainton. This Forefter Spends all his time in 
ranging the Woods, and is faid to make great Havock among 
the Deer, and other Inhabitants of the Foreft, not much wilder 
than Himfelf. 

We proceeded to the Canoe-Landing on Roanoak, where we 
paflt the River with the Baggage. But the Horfes were directed 
to a Ford about a Mile higher, call'd by the Indians Moni-feep, 
which fignifies, in their Jargon, Shallow Water. This is the 
Ford where the Indian-Traders ufed to crofs with their Horfes, 
in their way to the Catauba Nation. 

1 The fame Humour prevails at this day in the Kings of Denmark, who order all 
the Eaft India Ships of that nation to call at the Cape of Good Hope, and take in a 
But cf Water from a Spring on the Tabic Hill, and bring it to Copenhagen, for Their 

Majefty's own Drinking. 

Dividing Line. 87 

There are many Rocks in the River thereabouts, on which 1*720 
grows a kind of Water-Grafs, which the wild Geefe are fond of, Sept. 
and refort to it in great Numbers. ~ v " 

We landed on the South Side of Roanoak at a Plantation of 
Colo. Mumford's, where, by that Gentleman's Special Direc- 
tions, we met with Sundry Refrefhments. Here we pitcht our 
Tent, for the benefit of the Profpecl, upon an Eminence that 
overlookt a broad Piece of Low Ground, very rich, tho' liable 
to be overflow'd. '■ •.' 

By the way, one of our Men kill'd another Rattle-Snake, with 
II Rattles, having a large Gray Squirrel in his Maw, the head 
of which was already digefted, while the Body remain'd Stil 

The way thefe Snakes catch their Prey is thus : They Ogle 
the poor little animal, till by force of the Charm he falls down 
Stupify'd and Senfelefs on the Ground. In that condition the 
Snake approaches, and moiftens firft one Ear and then the 
Other with his Spawl, and after that the other Parts of the 
Head, to make all Slippery. When that is done, he draws 
this Member into his Mouth, and after it, by Slow Degrees, all 
the reft of the Body. 

This being Sunday, we had Divine Service and a Sermon, at 29 
which Several of the Borderers afTifted, and we concluded the 
Duties of the Day in the Chriftening five Children. Our De- 
votion beins perform'd in the Open Field, like that of Mr. 
Whitfield's Flocks, an unfortunate Shower of Rain had almoft 
difperft our Congregation. About four in the Afternoon the 
Carolina-CommiiTioners made a Shift to come up with us, whom 
we had left at Pidgeon-Rooft Creek the Fryday before, waiting 
for their Provifions. When their Cart came up they prudently 
difcharg'd it, and rather chofe to hire two Men to carry fome 
part of their Baggage. The Reft they had been Obliged to 

88 fhe Hiftory of the 

1 729 leave behind, in the Crotch of an Old Tree, for want of proper 
Sept. Conveniences to tranfport it any farther. 

w-> ' , ~" We found in the low Ground Several Plants of the Fern 
Root, which is faid to be much the Stronger!: Antidote yet dif- 
covcr'd againft the Poifon of the Rattle-Snake. The Leaves 
of it refemble thofe of Fern, from whence it obtain'd its Name. 
Several Stalks moot from the fame Root, about 6 Inches long, 
that ly moftly on the Ground. It grows in a very Rich Soil, 
under the Protection of Some tall Tree, that Shades it from the 
Meridian Beams of the Sun. The Root has a faint Spicy taft, 
and is prcferr'd by the Southern Indians to all other Counter- 
poifons in this Country. 

But there is another Sort preferr'd by the Northern Indians, 
that they call Seneca Rattle-Snake-Root, to which wonderful 
Vertues are afcrib'd in the Cure of Pleurifys, Feavers, Rhuma- 
tifms, and Dropfys ; befides it being a powerfull Antidote againft 
the Venom of the Rattle-Snake. 

In the Evening the MefTenger we had fent to Chriftanna 
return'd with five Saponi Indians. We cou'd not entirely rely 
on the Dexterity of our own Men, which induced us to fend for 
fome of the Indians. We agreed with two of the moft expert 
of them, upon reafonable Terms, to hunt for us the remaining 
Part of our Expedition. But one of them falling Sick foon 
after, we were content to take only the other, whofe Hunting 
Name was Bear-fkin. 

This Indian, either by his Skill or good Luck, Supply'd us 
plentifully all the way with Meat, Seldom difcharging his piece 
in vain. 

By his Afli fiance, therefore, we were able to keep our men 

to their Bufinefs, without Suffering them to Straggle about the 

Woods, on pretence of furnifhing us with Nccefiary Food. 

?o It had rain'd all night, and made every thing fo wet, that our 

Surveyors cou'd not get to their Work before Noon. They 

Dividing Line. 89 

cou'd therefore meafure no more than four Miles and 220 Poles, 1720 
which, according to the befl information we cou'd get, was near Sept. 
as high as the uppcrmoft Inhabitant at that time. ~^ 

We croll the Indian Trading path above-mention'd about a 
Mile from our Camp, and a Mile beyond that forded Haw- 
Tree-Creek:. The Woods we palled thro' had all the Tokens 
of Sterility, except a fmall Poifon'd Field, on which grew no 
Tree bigger than a Slender Sapling. The larger Trees had been 
defrroyed, either by Fire or Caterpillars, which is often the 
Cafe in the upland Woods, and the places where fuch Defla- 
tion happens are call'd Poifon'd Fields. 

We took up our Quarters upon a Branch of Great Creek, 
where there was tolerable good Grafs for the poor Horfes. 
Thefe poor Animals having now got beyond the Latitude of 
Corn, were obliged to Shift as well as they cou'd for them- 

On our way the men rouf'd a Bear, which being the firft we 
had feen fince we came out, the poor Bean: had many purfuers. 
Several Perfons contended for the Credit of killing Him : tho' 
he was fo poor he was not worth the Powder. This was fome 
Difappointment to our Woodfmcn, who commonly prefer the 
Flefh of Bears to every kind of Venifon. There is Something 
indeed peculiar to this Animal, namely, that its fat is very firm, 
and may be eaten plentifully without rifing in the Stomach. 
The Paw (which, when ftript of the hair, looks like a Human 
Foot,) is accounted a delicious A4orfel by all who are not 
Shockt at the ungracious Refemblance it bears to a Human 

There was a white Frofr. this morning on the Ground, occa- Ocl. 
fion'd by a North-Weil: Wind, which flood our Friend in 
difperfing all Aguifli Damps, and making the Air wholfome at 
the Same time that it made it cold. Encourag'd therefore by 

90 The Hijlory of the 

1 729 the Weather, Our Surveyors got to work early, and by the 
Oct. Benefit of Clear Woods, and Level Ground, drove the Line 12 
""""^""""^ Miles and 12 Poles. 

At a Small Diftance from our Camp we croft Great Creek, 
and about 7 Miles farther Nut-bufh Creek, fo call'd from the 
many Kazle-Trees growing upon it. By good Luck Many 
Branches of thcfe Creeks were full of Reeds, to the great com- 
fort of our Horfes. Near five Miles from thence we encampt 
on a Branch that runs into Nut-Bufh Creek, where thofe Reeds 
flourifht more than Ordinary. The Land we marcht over was 
for the mod part broken and Stony, and in fome places cover'd 
over with Thickets almoft impenetrable. 

At Night the Surveyors, taking Advantage of a very clear 
Sky, made a third Tryal of the Variation, and found it Still 
fomething lefs than 3 Degrees, fo that it did not diminifh by 
advancing towards the Weft, or by approaching the Mountains, 
nor yet by encreafing our diftance from the Sea ; but remain' d 
much the Same we had found it at Corotuck-Inlet. 

One of our Indians kill'd a large Fawn, which was verv wel- 
come, tho', like Hudibras's Horfe, it had hardly fleih Enough to 
cover its Bones. 

In the low Grounds the Carolina Gentlemen fhew'd us 
another Plant, which they laid was uied in their country to cure 
the Bite of the Rattle-Snake. It put forth Several Leaves in 
figure like a Heart, and was clouded fo like the common AiTa- 
rabacca, that I conceived it to be of that Family. 
2 So Soon as the Horfes cou'd be found, we hurry'd away the 
Surveyors, who advancl the line 9 Miles and 254 Poles. About 
3 Aliles from the Camp they crolTt a large Creek, which the 
Indians call'd Mafiamoni, Signifying, in their Language, Paint- 
Creek, becaufe of the great Quantity of Red ochre found in its 
banks. This in every Frefh tinges the Water juft as the fame 
Mineral did formerly, and to this day continues to tinge, the 

Dividing Line. 9 1 

famous River Adonis, in Phoenicia, by which there hangs a celc- 1729 
brated Fable. ° a - 

Three Miles beyond that we paft another Water with diffi- **~ 
culty, call'd Yaypatfco, or Bever Creek. Thofe induftrious 
Animals had damm'd up the water fo high, that we had much 
ado to get over. Tis hardly credible how much work of this 
kind they will do in the Space of one Night. They bite young 
Saplings into proper Lengths with their Fore-teeth, which are 
exceeding Strong and Sharp, and afterwards drag them to the 
Place where they intend to Stop the Water. 

Then they know how to join Timber and Earth together 
with fo much Skill, that their Work is able to refill the moil 
violent Flood that can happen. In this they are qualify'd to 
inftrucl their Betters, it being certain their damms will (land 
firm when the Strongeft that are made by men will be carry'd 
down the Stream. 

We obferved very broad low Grounds upon this Creek, with 
a growth of large Trees, and all the other Signs of Fertility, 
but feem'd fubjecr. to be every where overflow'd in a frefh. 

The certain way to catch thefe Sagacious Animals is thus: 
Squeeze all the Juice out of the large Pride of the Beaver, and 
6 Drops out of the fmall Pride. Powder the inward Bark of 
Safl'afras, and mix it with this Juice, then bait therewith a Steel 
Trap, and they will eagerly come to it, and be taken. 

About three Miles and an half farther we came to the Banks 
of another creek, call'd, in the Saponi Language, Ohimpa-moni, 
Signifying Jumping Creek, from the frequent Jumping of 1 ifh 
during the Spring Seafon. 

Here we encampt, and by the time the Horfes were hobbled, 
our Hunters brought us no lefs than a Brace and a half of Deer, 
which made great Plenty, and confequently great content in our 

Some of our People had Shot a great Wild Cat, which was 

92 The Hijiory of the 

1 7 2Q th at f" ata l nioment making a comfortable Meal upon a Fox- 
Odl. Squirrel, and an Ambitious Sportfman of our Company claim'd 
"°'^ r ~"'^ the merit of killing this monfter after it was dead. 

The Wild-cat is as big again as any Houfehold-Cat, and much 
the fiercer!. Inhabitant of the Woods. Whenever 'tis difabled, 
it will tear its own Flefh for rnadnefs. Akho' a Panther will 
run away from a Man, a Wild-cat will only make a Surly Re- 
treat, now and then facing about, if he be too clofely purfued ; 
and will even purfue in his turn, if he obferve the leaft Sign of 
Fear or even of caution in thofe that pretend to follow Him. 

The Flefh of this beaft, as well as of the Panther, is as white 
as veal, and altogether as fweet and delicious. 
3 We got to work early this Morning, and carry'd the line 8 
Miles and a 160 Poles. We forded Several Runs of Excellent 
Water, and afterwards traverft a large levil of high land full of 
lofty Walnut, Poplar, and W T hite Oak Trees, which are certain 
Proofs of a fruitful Soil. This levil was near two Miles in 
length, and of an unknown breadth, quite out of Danger of 
being overflow'd, which is a misfortune moil of the Low 
Grounds are liable to in thofe Parts. As we marcht along we 
faw many BufFalo-Tracks, and abundance of their Dung very 
Frefh, but could not have the pleafure of feeing them. They 
either Smelt us out, having that fenfe very Quick, or elfe were 
alarm'd at the Noife that fo many People mull: neceiTarily make ■ 
in marching along. At the Sight of a Man they will Snort and 
Grunt, cock up their ridiculous Short Tails, and tear up the 
Ground with a Sort of Timorous Fury. 

Thefe wild Cattle hardly ever range alone, but herd together 
like thofe that are tame. They are Seldom feen fo far North as 
40 of latitude, delighting much in canes and Reeds, which grow 
generally more Southerly. 

We quarter'd on the Banks of a Creek that the Inhabitants 
call Tewahominy, or Tufkarooda creek, becaufe one of that 

Dividing Line. 93 

Nation had been kill'd thereabouts, and his Body thrown into 1729 
the Creek. 0&. 

Our people had the Fortune to kill a Brace of does, one of ^~~ v ~"" 
which we prefented to the Carolina-Gentlemen, who were glad 
to partake of the Bounty of Providence, at the fame time that 
they fncer'd at us for depending upon it. 

We hurry'd away the Surveyors about 9 this Morning, who 4 
extended the Line 7 Miles and 160 Poles, notwithstanding the 
Ground was exceedingly uneaven. At the Diftance of five 
Miles we forded a Stream to which we gave the Name of Slew- 
ing creek, becaufe of the great Number of thofe Fowls that then 
frequented it. 

About 7.\ Miles beyond that, we came upon Sugar-Tree-Creek, 
fo call'd from the many Trees of that kind that grow upon it. 
By tapping this Tree, in the fir ft Warm weather in February, 
One may get from 20 to 40 Gallons of Liquor, very fweet to 
the taft and agreeable to the Stomach. This may be boil'd into 
molofles firft, and afterwards into very good Sugar, allowing 
about 10 Gallons of the Liquor to make a Pound. There's no 
doubt, too, that a very fine Spirit may be diftill'd from the mo- 
lofles, at leaft as good as Rum. The Sugar Tree delights only 
in Rich Ground, where it grows very tall, and by the Softnefs 
and Spunginefs of the Wood fhou'd be a quick Grower. 

Near this Creek we difcovered likewife Several Spice-Trees, 
the Leaves of which are fragrant, and the Berries they bear are 
black when dry, and of a hot taft, not much unlike Pepper. 

The low Grounds upon the creek are very wide, fometimcson 
one Side, Sometimes on the Other ; tho' moil commonly upon 
the Oppoiite Shore the high-land advances clofe to the Bank, 
only on the North-Side of the Line it fpreads itfelf into a great 
Breadth of rich low Ground on both fides the Creek for four 
Miles together, as far as this Stream runs into Kico-River, 
whereof I fhall prefently make mention. 

94 *£b£ llifiory of the 

1 729 One of our Men Spy'd three Buffaloes, but his Piece being 

vJct. loaded only with Goofc-fhot, he was able to make no effectual 

Impremon on their thick hides ; however, this Difappointment 

was made up by a Brace of Bucks, and as many Wild Turkeys, 

kill'd by the reft of the company. 

Thus Providence was very Bountiful to our Endeavours, 
never disappointing thofe that faithfully rely upon it, and pray 
heartily for their Daily Bread. 
c This day we met with fuch uneven Grounds, and thick Un- 
derwoods, that with all our Induftry we were able to advance 
the Line but 4 Miles and 312 Poles. In this fmall Diflance it 
intcrfected a large ftream four times, which our Indian at firft 
miftook for the South Branch of Roanoke River ; but, difcover- 
ing his Error foon after, he allured us 'twas a River called 
Hicootomony, or Turkey-Buzzard River, from the great Num- 
ber of thofe unfavoury Birds that rooft on the tall Trees grow- 
ing near its banks. 

Early in the Afternoon, to our very great furprize, the Com- 
mimoners of Carolina acquainted us with their Refolution to 
return Home. This Declaration of theirs feem'd the more 
abrupt, becaufe they had not been fo kind as to prepare us, by 
the leaft Hint, of their Intention to defert us. 

We therefore let them underftand they Appear'd to us to aban- 
don the Bufinefs they came about with too much Precipitation, this 
being but the 15th day fince we came out the laft time. But, 
altho' we were to be fo unhappy as to lofe the AfTiftance of their 
great Abilities, yet we, who were concern'd for Virginia, deter- 
min'd by the Grace of God, not to do our Work by Plalves, 
but, all deferted as we were like to be, fhou'd think it our duty 
to pufh the Line quite to the Mountains j and if their Govern- 
ment mould refufe to be bound by fo much of the Line as was 
run without their Commiflioncrs, yet at leaft it would bind Vir- 

T)ividt7ig Line. 95 

ginia, and Stand as a Direction hew far his Majefty's Lands 1729 
extend to the Southward. • 

In fhort, thefe Gentlemen were pofitive, and the moft we 
could agree upon was to Subfcribe plats of our work as far as 
we had Afted together ; tho' at the. fame time we infifted thefe 
Plats fliould be got ready by Monday Noon at fartheft, when 
we on the Part of Virginia intended, if we were alive, to move 
forward without farther lofs of Time, the Seafon being then too 
far advance to admit of any unnecefiary or complaifant delays. 

We lay frill this -day, being Sunday, on the Bank of Hico 6 
River, and had only Prayers, our Chaplain not having Spirits 
enough to preach. The Gentlemen of Carolina amfted not at 
our Publick Devotions, becaufe they were taken up all the 
Morning in making a formidable Proteft againft our Proceeding 
on the Line without them. 

When the Divine Service was over, the Surveyors fat about 
making the Plats of fo much of the Line as we had run this laft 
Campaign. Our pious Friends of Carolina affiftcd in this work 
with fome Seeming Scruple, pretending it was a Violation of the 
Sabbath, which we were the more Surpriz'd at, becaufe it hap- 
pened to be the firft Qualm of Confcience they had ever been 
troubled with dureing the whole journey. They had made no 
Bones of Staying from Prayers to hammer out an unneceffary 
Proteft, tho' Divine Service was no Sooner over, but an unulual 
Fit of Godlinefs made them fancy that finishing the plats, which 
was now matter of necefTity, was a prophanation of the Day. 
However, the Expediency of lofing no time, for us who thought 
it our duty to finifh what we had undertaken, made fuch a Labour 

In the Afternoon, Mr. Fitz William, one of the Commiffion- 
ers for Virginia, acquainted his Collegues it was his Opinion, that 
by his Majcfty's Order they could not proceed farther on the 
Line, but in Conjunction with the Commiflioners of Carolina ; 

96 The II ifl or y of the 

1729 for which reafon he intended to retire, the Next Morning, with 
{Jtx. thofe Gentlemen. 

This lookt a little odd in our Brother Commiffioner ; tho', 
in Juftice to Him, as well as to our Carolina Friends, they ftuck 
by us as long as our good Liquor lafted, and were fo kind to us 
as to drink our good Journey to the Mountains in the laft Bottle 
we had left. 
7 The Duplicates of the plats cou'd not be drawn fair this day 
before Noon, when they were counterfign'd by the Commiflion- 
ers of Each Government. Then thofe of Carolina deliver'd 
their Proteft, which was by this time lickt into form, and fign'd 
by them all. And we have been fo juft to them as to fet it 
down at full length in the Appendix, that their Reafons for 
leaving us may appear in their full Strength. 

After having thus adjufted all our Affairs with the Carolina 
Commifli oners, and kindly fupply'd them with Bread to carry 
them back, which they hardly deferv'd at our hands, we took 
leave both of them and our colleague, Mr. Fitzwilliam. 

This Gentleman had ftil a Stronger Reafon for hurrying him 
back to Williamfburg, which was, that neither the General 
Court might lofe an able Judge, nor himfelf a double Salary, not 
defpairing in the lead but he fhou'd have the whole pay of 
Commiffioner into the Bargain, tho' he did not half the Work. 
This, to be fure, was relying more on the Intereft of his Friends 
than on the Juftice of his caufe ; in which, however, he had the 
misfortune to mifcarry, when it came to be fairly confidered. 

It was two a clock in the Afternoon before thefe arduous 
Affairs could be defpatcht, and then, all forfaken as we were, we 
held on our courfe towards the Weft. But it was our misfor- 
tune to meet with fo many Thickets in this Afternoon's Work, 
that we cou'd advance no further than 2 Miles and 260 Poles. 
In this fmall Diftance we crcflt the Hico the fifth time, and 

Dividing Live. gj 

Quarter'd near Buffalo-Creek, Co nam'd from the frequent To- ]~ 2 q 
kens we difcover'd of that American Behemoth. Oct. 

Here the Bufhes were fo intolerably thick, that we were Vw ~">"~"" 
oblig'd to cover the Bread Baggs with our Deer Skins, other- 
wife the Joke of one of the Indians muft have happen'd to us in 
good Earneft, that in a few days We muft cut up our Houfe to 
make Bags for the Bread, and {o be forct to expofe our Backs 
in compliment to our Bellys. 

We computed we had then Bifquet enough left to lad us, 
with good Management. Seven Weeks longer ; And this being 
our chief Dependence, it imported us to be very careful both in 
the Carriage and the Diftribution of it. 

We had no other Drink but what Adam drank in Paradife, 
tho' to our comfort we found the Water excellent, bv the Help 
of which we perceiv'd our Appetites to Mend, our Slumbers to 
Sweeten, the Stream of Life to run cool and peaceably in our 
Veins, and if ever we dreamt of Women, they were kind. 

Our men kill'd a very fat Buck and Several Turkeys. Thefe 
two kinds of Meat boil'd together, with the Addition of a little 
Rice or French Bailey, made excellent Soupe, and, what hap- 
pens rarely in Other good things, it never clov'd, no more than 
an Engaging Wife wou'd do, by being a Conflant Difh. 

Our Indian was very Superftitious in this Matter, and told us, 
with a face full of concern, that if we continued to boil Venifon 
and Turkey together, we Shou'd for the future kill nothing, 
becaufe the Spirit that presided over the Woods would drive all 
the Game out of our Sight. But we had the Happinefs to find 
this an Idle Superftition, and tho' his Argument could not con- 
vince us, yet our repeated Experience at laft, with much ado, 
convine'd Him. 

We obferv'd abundance of Colt's foot and Maiden-hair in 
many Places, and no where a larger Quantity than here. They 

98 The Hi/lory of the 

1729 are both Excellent Pectoral Plants, and feem to have greater 

Ol.1. Vertues much in this part of the World than in more Northern 

""^"""■^ climates ; and I believe it may pais for a Rule in Botanicks, that 

where any Vegetable is planted by the hand of Nature, it has 

more Vertue than in Places whereto it is tranfplanted by the 

Curiofity of Man. 

8 Notwithstanding we hurry'd away the Surveyors very early, 

yet the Underwoods embarrafPd them fo much that they cou'd 

with Difficulty advance the Line 4 A'Jilcs and 20 Poles. 

Our Cloaths Sufrer'd extreamely by the Bufhes, and it was 
really as much as both our hands could do to preferve our Eves 
in our Heads. Our poor Horfes, too, could hardlv drag their 
Loads thro' the Saplings, which flood fo clofe together that it 
was neceflary for them to draw and carry at the fame time. 

We quarter'd near a Spring of very fine Water, Soft as oyl 
and as cold as Ice, to make us amends for the want of Wine. 
And our Indian knockt down a very fat Doe, juft time enough 
to hinder us from going Supperlefs to Bed. 

£.\ The heavy Baggage cou'd not come up with us, becaufe of 
the ExcefTive badriefs of the Ways. This gave us no Small 
uneafinefs, but it went worfc with the poor men that guarded it. 
They had nothing in the World with them but dry Bread, nor 
durft they eat any of that, for fear of inflaming their Thirft, in 
a Place where they could find no Water to epiench it. 

This was, however, the better to be endured, becaufe it was 
the firft Fair any one had kept dureing the whole Journey, and 
then, Thanks to the gracious Guardian of the Woods ! there 
was no more than a Single Meal loll to a few of the Companv. 
We were entertain'd this Night with the Yell of a whole 
Family of Wolves, in which we cou'd diftinguifh the Treble, 
Tenor and Bafs, very clearly. Thefe Bcafls of Prey kept 
pretty much upon our Track, being tempted by the Garbage of 

Dividing Line. 99 

the Creatures we kill'd every day ; for which we were Serenaded i"20 
with their Shrill Pipes almoft every Night. This Beaft is not Ocl. 
fo untameablc as the Panther, but the Indians know how to ' v 
gentle their Whelps, and ufc them about their cabans inflead of 

The Thickets were hereabouts fo impenetrable, that we were 9 
obliged, at fir ft fetting off this Morning, to order four Pioneers 
to clear the way before the Surveyors. But after about 2 Miles 
of thefe rough-woods, we had the Pleafure to meet with Open 
Grounds and not very uneven, by the help of which we were 
enabled to pufh the Line about 6 Miles. 

The Baggage that lay Short of our camp laft Night came up 
about Noon, and the Men made heavy Complaints, that thev 
had been half Starv'd, like Tantalus, in the midft of plentv, for 
the Reafon above mention'd. 

The Soil we paft over this Day was generally very good, being 
cloath'd with large Trees, of Poplar, Hiccory, and Oak. But 
another certain Token of its Fertility was, that wild Angelica 
grew plentifully upon it. 

The Root of this Plant, being very warm and Aromatick, is 
coveted by Woodfmen extremely as a dry Dram, that is, when 
Rum, that cordial for all Diftrefles, is wanting. 

Several Deer came into our View as we marcht alono-, but 
none into the Pot, which made it neceflary for us to fup on the 
Fragments we had been fo provident as to carry along with us. 
This being but a temperate Repaft, made fome of our hungry 
Fellows call the Place we lodg'd at that Night, Bread and 
Water Camp. 

A great Flock of Cranes flew over our Quarters, that were 
exceeding Clamorous in their Flight. They feem to fteer their 
Courfe towards the South (being Birds of Paflage) in Queft of 
Warmer Weather. They only took this Country in their way, 



i oo The Hiflory of the 

1729 being as rarely met with, in this part of the World, as a High- 
0£t. way man or a Beggar. 

Thefe Birds travel generally in Flocks, and when they rooft 
they place Sentinels upon foine of the higheft Trees, which 
conftantly ftand upon one leg to keep themfelves waking. 1 

Our Indian kill'd nothing all day but a Mountain Patridge, 
which a little refembled the common Partridge in the Plumage, 
but was near as large as a Dunghill Hen. Thefe are very fre- 
quent towards the Mountains, tho' we had the fortune to meet 
with very few. They are apt to be Shy, and confcquently the 
Noife of fo great a Number of People might eafily Scare them 
away from our Sight. 

We found what we conceiv'd to be Good Limeftone in 
feveral Places, and a great Quantity of Blue Slate. 

The day began very fortunately by killing a Fat Doe, and 
Two Brace of Wild Turkeys 5 fo the Plenty of the Morning 
made amends for the Short Commons over Night. One of the 
new men we brought out with us the laft time was unfortu- 
nately heard to wifli himfelf at Home, and for that Shew of 
Impatience was publickly reprimanded at the Head of the men, 
who were all drawn up to witnefs his Difgrace. 

He was afkt how he came fo foon to be tired of the Company 
of fo many brave Fellows, and whether it was the Danger or 

1 Nor are thefe Birds the only Animals that appoint Scouts to keep the main Body 
from being fu.-priz'd. For the Baboons, whenever they go upon any mifchievous Ex- 
pedition, fuch as robbing an Orchard, they place centinels to loch out towards every 
Point of the Compaft, and give notice of any danger. Then ranking themlelves in 
one File, that reaches from the mountain where they harbour, to the Orchard they 
intend to rob, f >me of them tols the Fruits from the Trees to thofe that ftand neareft, 
thefe throw them to the next, and fo from one to tothcr, til the fruit is all fecured 
in a few Minutes out of Harm's way. In the mean time, if any of the Scouts ihculd 
be care'efs at their Foil; & Suffer any Surprize, they are torn to pieces without Mercy. 
In cafe of danger thefe centinels Set up a fearful cry, upon which the reft take the alarm, 
and Scour away to the Mountains aa fall as they can. 

'Dividing Line. i o i 

the Fatigue of the Journey that difliearten'd Him ? This pub- j-tq 
lick Reproof from thenceforward put an effectual Stop to all Oct. 
complaints, and not a man amongft us after that pretended lb "• 
much as to wifh himfelf in Paradife. 

A Small Diflance from our Camp we crorTt a pleafant Stream 
of Water call'd Cocquade Creek, and fomething more than a 
Alile from thence our Line interacted the South Branch of 
Roanoak River the firft time, which we call'd the Dan. It was 
about 200 Yards wide where we forded it, and when we came 
over to the Weft Side, we found the Banks lin'd with a Foreii 
of Tall canes, that grew more than a furlong in depth. So that 
it coft us abundance of time and Labour to cut a Paflage thro' 
them wide enough for our Baggage. 

In the mean time we had leizure to take a full view of this 
charming River. The Stream, which was perfectly clear, ran 
down about two Knots, or two Miles, an Hour, when the 
water was at the loweft. The Bottom was covcr'd with a 
coarfs Gravel, Spangled very thick with a Shining Subftance, 
that almoft dazzled the eye, and the Sand upon either Shore 
Sparkled with the fame Splendid Particles. 

At firfi Sight, the Sun-Beams giving a Yellow caft to thefc 
Spangles made us fancy them to be Gold-Dull, and confequently 
that all our Fortunes were made. Such Hopes as thefe were 
the lefs extravagant, becaufe feveral Rivers lying much about the 
Same Latitude with this have formerly abounded with Frag- 
ments of that tempting Metal. Witnefs the Tagus in Portugal, 
the Heber in Thrace, and the Pactolus in Letter Afia ; Not to 
mention the Rivers on the Gold Coaft in Africa, which ly in a 
more Southern Climate. 

But we foon found our Selves miftaken, and our Gold Duft 
dwindled into fmall Flakes of ifingglafs. However, tho* this did 
not make the River fo rich as we eou'd wifh, yet it made it ex- 
ceedingly Beautiful. 

I 02 The Hijhry of the 

1729 We marcht about two Miles and a half beyond this River, as 
Oct. far as Cane Creek, fo call'd from a Prodigious Quantity of tall 
Y ~~ canes that fring'd the Banks of it. 

On the Weft fide of this Creek we markt out our Quarters, 
and were glad to find our Horfes fond of the canes, tho' they 
Scowred them fmnrtly at firft, and difcolor'd their Dung. This 
beautiful Vegetable grows commonly from 12 to 16 feet High, 
and forne of them as thick as a Man's wrift. 

Tho' thefe appear'd large to us, yet they are no more than 
Spires of Grafs, if compar'd to thofe which fome curious Travel- 
lers tell us grow in the Eaft Indies, one Joint of which will 
make a Brace of Canoes, if faw'd in two in the Middle. Ours 
continue green thro' all the Seafons during the Space of Six 
Years, and the Seventh fried their Seed, wither away and Die. 
The Spring following they begin to Shoot again, and reach their 
former Stature the Second or third Year after. 

They grow fo thick, and their Roots lace together fo firmly, 
that they are the beft Guard that can be of the River-Bank, 
which wou'd otherwife be wamt away by the frequent Inunda- 
tions that happen in this part of the World. 

They would alio ferve excellently well to plant on the Bor- 
ders of Fifh-Ponds and Canals, to fecure their fides from fall- 
ing in ; tho' I fear the}- would nut grow kindly in a cold Country, 
being feldom feen here fo Northerly as 38 Degrees of Latitude. 
11 At the Diftance of 4 Aliles and 60 Poles from the Place 
where we encampt, we came upon the River Dan a Second time j 
tho' It was not fo wide in this Place as where we croflt it firft, 
being not above a 150 yards over. 

The Weft Shore continued to be covcr'd with the Canes 
above mention'd, but not to fo great a Breadth as before, and 'tis 
Remarkable that thefe canes are much more frequent on the 
Weft Side of the River than on the Eaft, where they grow 
generally very fcattering. 

Dividing Line. 103 

It was Still a beautiful Stream, rolling down its limpid and 1720 
murmuring waters among the Rocks, which lay fcatter'd here Oct. 
and there, to make up the variety of the Profpect. y 

It was about two Miles from this River to the End of our 
Day's Work, which led us moftly over Broken Grounds and 
troubleibme Underwoods. Hereabout, from one of the Hio-heft 
hills, we made the firft Difcovery of the Mountains, on the 
North-weft of our courfe. They feem'd to lye off at a vaft 
Diftance, and lookt like Ranges of Blue clouds riling one above 

We encampt about two Allies beyond the River, where we 
made good chear upon a very fat Buck, that luckily fell in our 
way. The Indian likewife Shot a Wild Turkey, but confefft 
he wou'd not bring it us, left we fhou'd continue to provoke 
the Guardian of the Forreft, by cooking the Beafts of the Field 
and the Birds of the Air together in one veffel. 

This Inftance of Indian Superftition, I confefs, is counte- 
nanced in fome meafure by the Levitical Law, which forbad the 
mixing of things of a Different Nature together in the Same 
field, or in the Same Garment, and why not then in the fame 
Kettle ? 

But, after all, if the Jumbleing of two Sorts of Flefh together 
be a Sin, how intolerable an Offence muft it be to make a 
Spanifh Ole, that is, a Hotchpotch of every kind of thing that is 
eatable ? And the good People of England wou'd have a great 
deal to anfwer for, for beating up fo many different Ingredients 
into a Pudding. 

We were fo cruelly intangled with Bufhes and Grape- Vines 12 
all day, that we could advance the Line no farther than 5 Miles 
and 28 Poles. 

The Vines giow very thick in thefe Woods, twineing lovingly 
round the Trees almoft every where, especially to the Saplings. 
This makes it evident how Natural both the Soil and Climate 

104 The Ilijlory of the 

1729 of this Country are to Vines, tho' I believe mofl to our own 
Oa. Vi n c S . 

The Grapes we commonly met with were black, tho' there 
be two or three kinds of White Grapes that grow wild- The 
Black arc very Sweet, but Small, becaufe the Strength of the 
Vine fpends itfelf in Wood ; tho' without Oueftion a proper 
Culture would make the fame Grapes both larger and Sweeter. 
Eut, with all thefe Difadvantages, I have Drunk tolerable good 
Wine preft from them, tho' made without Skill. There is then 
good Reafon to believe it might Admit of great Improvement, if 
rightly managed. 

Our Indian kill'd a Bear, of two years old, that was feafting 
on thefe Grapes. He was very fat, as they generally are in that 
feafon of the year. In the fall, the Flefh of this Animal has a 
high Rclifh, different from that of other Creatures, tho' inclining 
neareft to that of Pork, or rather of Wild Boar. 

A true Woodfman prefers this Sort of meat to that of the 
fatted Venifon, not only for the Haut-gout y but alfo becaufe the 
Fat of it is well talced, and never riles in the ftomach. Another 
proof of the goodnefs of this meat is, that it is lefs apt to corrupt 
than any other we are acquainted with. As agreeable as fuch 
rich Diet was to the men, yet we who were not accuftom'd to 
it, tafced it at firft with fome fort of Squeamimnefs, that Animal 
being of the Dog-kind ; tho' a little Ufe foon reconcil'd us to 
this American Venifon. And that its beimr of the Dog kind 
might give us the lefs difgufl, we had the Example of that An- 
cient and polite People, the Chinefe, who reckon Dog's Flefh 
too good for any under the Quality of a mandarin. 

This Beaft is in truth a very clean Feeder, living, while the 
Seafon lafts, upon Acorns, Chefnuts and Chinkapins, Wild- 
Flony and Wild-Grapes. They arc naturally not carnivcrous, 
unlefs Hunger conlhain them to it, after the Mall is all o ne, 
and the Producls of the Woods quite exhauited. 

Dividing Line. 105 

They are not p'ovident enough to lay up any Hoard, like the 1729 
Squirrels, nor can they, after all, live very long upon licking Oct. 
their Paws, as Sr John Mandevil and fome Travellers tell us, ^~^~ 
but are forct in the Winter Months to quit the Mountains, and 
vifit the Inhabitants. 

Their Errand is then to Surprife a poor Hog at a Pinch to 
keep them from Starving. And to mew that they are not Flefh- 
Eaters by Trade, they devour their Prey very awkwardly. 

They don't kill it right out, and feaft upon its Blood and 
Entrails, like other ravenous Beafts, but having, after a fair pur- 
fuit, feiz'd it with their Paws, they begin firft upon the Rump, 
and fo devour one collop after another, till they come to the 
Vitals, the poor Animal crying all the while, for feveral Minutes 
together. However, in fo doing, Bruin acts a little imprudently, 
becaufe,the difmal outcry of the Hog alarms the Neighbour- 
hood, and 'tis odds but he pays the forfeit with his Life, before 
he can Secure his Retreat. 

But Bears foon grow weary of this unnatural Diet, and about 
January, when there is nothing to be got in the Woods, they 
retire into fome cave or hollow Tree, where they Sleep away 
two or three Months very comfortably. But then they quit their 
Holes in March, when the Fiih begin to run up the Rivers, on 
which they are forcl to keep Lent, till fome Fruit or Berry 
comes in Seafon. 

But Bears are fondeft of chefnuts, which grow plentifully 
towards the Mountains, upon very large Trees, where the Soil 
happens to be rich. We were curious to know how it happen'd 
that many of the outward Branches of thofe Trees came to be brok 
off in that Solitary Place, and were inform'd that the Bears are 
fo difcreet as not to truft their unwieldy Bodies on the Smaller 
Linibs of the Tree, that would not bear their weight ; but after 
venturing as far as is fafe, which they can judge to an Inch, they 
bite off the End of the Branch, which falling down, they are 

1 06 The Hi/lory of the 

i"}2() content to finifh their Repair upon the Ground. In the fame 
Vtt. Cautious Manner they feeure the Acorns that grow on the 
weaker Limbs of the Oak. And it muft be allow'd that, in 
thefe Inftances, a Bear carries Inftinct a great way, and Acts 
more reasonably than many of his Betters, who indifcreetly 
Venture upon frail Projects that wont bear them. 
13 This being Sunday, we retted from our Fatigue, and had 
leifure to reflect on the fignal Mercies of Providence. 

The great Plentv of Meat wherewith Bearfkin furnifht us in 
thefe lonely Woods made us once more Shorten the men's allow- 
ance of Bread, from 5 to 4 Pounds of biiket a week. This was 
the more neceflary, becaufe we knew not yet how long our 
Bufmefs might require us to be out. 

In the Afternoon our Hunters went forth, and return'd tri- 
umphantly with three brace of wild Turkeys. They told us 
they cou'd fee the Mountains distinctly from every Eminence, 
tho' the Atmofphere was fo thick with Smoak that they ap- 
pear'd at a greater Diftance than they really were. 

In the Evening we examin'd our Friend Bearfkin, concerning 
the Religion of his Country, and he explain'd it to us, without 
any of that Referve to which his Nation is Subject. 

He told us he believ'd there was one Supreme God, who had 
Several Subaltern Deities under Him. And that this Mafter- 
God made the World a long time ago. That he told the Sun, 
the Moon, and Stars, their Bulinefs in the Beginning, which 
they, with good looking after, have faithfully perform'd ever 

That the fame Power that made all things at fir ft has taken 
care to keep them in the fame Method and Motion ever 

He believ'd God had form'd many Worlds before he form'd 
this, but that thofe Worlds either grew old and ruinous, or 
were deftroyed for the Diihoncfty of the Inhabitants. 

. Dividing Line. 107 

That God is very juft and very good — ever well pleaPd 1^29 
with thofe men who poflcfs thofe God-like Qualities. That he 0&^ 
takes good People into his fate Protection, makes them very 
rich, fills their Bellies plentifully, preferves them from ficknefs, 
and from being furpriz'd or Overcome by their Enemies. 

But all fuch as tell Lies, and Cheat thofe they have Dealings 
with, he never fails to punifh with Sicknefs, Poverty and Hun- 
ger, and, after all that, Suffers them to be knockt on the Head 
and fcalpt by thofe that tight againft them. 

He believ'd that after Death both good and bad People arc 
conducted by a ftrong Guard into a great Road, in which de- 
parted Souls travel together for fome time, till at a certain 
Diftance this Road forks into two Paths, the one extremely 
Levil, and the other Stony and Mountainous. 

Here the good are parted from the Bad by a flam of Lighten- 
ing, the nrft being hurry'd away to the Right, the other to the 
Left. The Right hand Road leads to a charming warm 
Country, where the Spring is everlafling, and every Month is 
May ; and as the year is always in its Youth, fo are the People, 
and' particularly the Women are bright as Stars, and never 


That in this happy Climate there are Deer, Turkeys, Elks, 
and Buffaloes innumerable, perpetually fat and gentle, while 
the Trees are loaded with delicious Fruit quite throughout the 

four Seafons. 

That the Soil brings forth Corn Spontaneoufly, without the 
Curfe of Labour, and fo very wholefome, that None who have 
the happinefs to eat of it are ever Sick, grow old, or dy. 

Near the Entrance into this Blefled Land Sits a Venerable 
Old Man on a Mat richly woven, who examins Strictly all that 
are brought before Him, and if they have bchav'd well, the 
Guards Ire order'd to open the Cryftal Gate, and let them 
enter into the Land of Delights. 

io8 The Hijiory of the 

1729 The left Hand Path is very rugged and uneaven, leading to a 
Oct, dark and barren Country, where it is always Winter. The 
"~~ v ~~ Ground is the whole year; round cover'd with Snow, and 
nothing is to be feen upon the Trees but Icicles. 

• All the People are hungry, yet have not a Morfel of any thing 
to eat, except a bitter kind of Potato, that gives them the Dry- 
Gripes, and fills their whole Body with loathfome Ulcers, that 
Stink, and arc iniupportably painfull. 

Here all the Women are old and ugly, having Claws like a 
Panther, with which they fly upon the Men that Slight their 
Pafhon. For it feems thefe haggard old Furies are intolerably 
fond, and expect a vaft deal of Cherifhing. They talk much, 
and exceedingly Shrill, giving exquifite Pain to the Drum of the 
Ear, which in that Place of the Torment is fo tender, that every 
Sharp Note wounds it to the Ouick. 

At the End of this Path fits a dreadful Old Woman on a 
monftrous Toad-Stool, whofe head is cover'd with Rattle-Snakes 
inftead of TrelTes, with glaring white Eyes, that ftrike a Terror 
unfpeakable into all that behold her. 

This Hag pronounces Sentence of Woe upon all the mifera- 
ble Wretches that hold up their hands at her Tribunal. After 
this they are deliver'd over to huge Turkey-Buzzards, like 
harpys, that fly away with them to the Place above men- 

Here, after they have been tormented a certain Number of 
years, according to their feveral Degrees of Guilt, they are 
ao-ain driven back into this World, to try if thev will mend 
their Manners, and merit a place the next time in the Regions 
of Blifs. 

ThisVas the Subftancc "of Bearfkin's Religion, and was as 
much to the'purpofe as cou'd be expected from a mcer State of 
Nature, without one Glimps of Revelation or Philofophy. 

Dividing Line. 109 

It contain'd, however, the three Great Articles of Natural 1729 
Religion : The Belief of a God ; The Moral Diitinction betwixt OtX. 
Good and Evil ; and the Expectation of Rewards and Punifh- ^~ > 
merits in Another World. 

Indeed, the Indian Notion of a Future Happinefs is a little 
Grofs and Senfual, like Mahomet's Paradife. But how can it 
be otherwife, in a People that are contented with Nature as 
they find Her, and have no other Lights but what they receive 
from purblind Tradition? 

There having been great Signs of Rain yeflerday Evening, 14 
we had taken our Precautions in Securing the Bread, and trench- 
ing in our Tent. 

The men had alfo Stretcht their Blankets upon Poles, Pent- 
houfe fafhion, againft the Weather, fo that nobody was taken 

It began to fall heavily about three a'clock in the Morning, 
and held not up till near Noon. Everything was fo thoroughly 
Soakt, that we laid afide all thoughts of decamping that Day. 

This gave leizure to the mod expert of our Gunners to <jo 
and try their Fortunes, and they fucceeded fo well, that they 
return'd about Noon with three fat Deer, and 4 wild Tur- 
keys. Thus Providence took care of us, and however fhort the 
Men might be in their Bread, 'tis certain they had Meat at full 

The Cookery went on merrily all Night long, to keep the 
Damps from entering our Pores ; and in truth the Impreflions of 
the Air are much more powerfull upon empty Stomachs. 

In fuch a Glut of Provifions, a true Woouiman, when he has 
nothing elfe to do, like our honcft countrymen the Indians, 
keeps eating on, to avoid the imputation of ldlcncfs ; Though, 
in a Scarcity, the Indian will faft with a much better Grace than 
they. They can Subliil Several days upon a little Rockahominv, 
which is parent Indian Corn redue'd to powder. This they 

no The Hijlory of the 

in2Q moiiten in the hollow of their Hands with a little water, and 'tis 
0&- hardly credible how finall a Quantity of it will Support them. 
* Tis true they grow a little lank upon it, but .to make themfelves 
feel full, they gird up their Loins very tight with a Belt, taking 
up a Hole every day. With this Slender Subiiilence they are 
able to travel very long Journeys ; but then, to make themfelves 
Amends, when they do meet with better Chear, they eat with- 
out ceafing, till they have raven'd themfelves into another 

This was the firft time we had ever been detain'd a whole 
day in our camp by the Rain, and therefore had Reafon to bear 
it with the more patience. 

As I fat in the Tent I overheard a learn'd convcrfation be- 
tween one of our men and the Indian. He aik't the Englifhman 
what it was that made that rumbling noife when it thunder'd ? 

The man told him merrily, that the God of the Englifh was 
firing his great Guns upon the God of the Indians, which made 
all the roaring in the clouds, and that the Lightening was only 
the Flafh of thofe Guns. 

The Indian carrying on the Humour reply'd very gravely, 
He believed that might be the cafe indeed, and that the Rain 
which follow'd upon the Thunder rnuft be occafion'd by the 
Indian God's being {o fcar'd he could not hold his Water. 

The few good Hufbands amongft us took fome thought of 
their Backs as well as their Bellies, and made ufe of this Oppor- 
tunitv to put their Habiliments in repair, which had Sufler'd 
wofully by the Bufhes. 

The Horfes got fome reft, by reafon of the bad weather, but 
very little Food, the chief of their Forage being a little wild 
Rofcmary, which refembles the Garden Rofemary pretty much 
in Figure, but not at all in tafte or fmell. This Plant grows in 
fmall Tufts here and there on the Barren Land in thefe upper 

Dividing Line. 1 1 1 

Parts, and the Horfes liked it well, but the misfortune was, they .--_ 

/ 2 9 
cou'd not get enough of it to fill their Bellies. Oct. 

After the Clouds brake away in the Morning, the People v — v — 
dryed their Blankets with all diligence. Neverthelefs, it was 5 
Noon before we were in condition to move forward, and then 
were fo puzzled with paffing the river twice in a Small Diftance, 
that we could advance the Line in all no farther than One 
Single Mile and 300 Poles. 

The firft time we paft the Dan this day was 240 Poles from 
the Place where we lay, and the Second time was one Mile and 
Seven Poles beyond that. This was now the fourth time we 
forded that fine River, which ftill tended wefterlv, with manv 
Short and returning Reaches. 

The Surveyors had much Difficulty in getting over the River, 
finding it deeper than formerly. The Breadth of it here did not 
exceed fifty Yards. The Banks were about 20 feet high from 
the Water, and beautifully befet with canes. 

Our Baggage Horfes croft not the River here at all, but, 
fetching a compafs, went round the Bent of it. On our Way we 
forded Sable-Creek, fo call'd from the Dark Colour of the 
Water, which happcn'd, I fuppofe, by its being Shaded on both 
Sides with canes. 

In the Evening we quarter'd in a Charming Situation near 
the angle of the River, from whence our Eyes were carried 
down both Reaches, which kept a Straight Courfe for a great 
way together. 

This Profpccl: was fo beautiful, that we were perpetually 
climbing up to a Neighbouring eminence, that we might enjoy it 
in more Perfection, 

Now the Weather grew cool, the Wild Gecfe began to direct 
their Flight this way from Hudfon's Bny y and the Lakes that 
lay North-weft of us. 

They are very lean at their firft coming, but fatten foon upon 

112 %he Hi/lory of the 

1 720 a Sort of Grafs that grows on the Shores and Rocks of this 
O6V River. 

— ^~~ / The Indians call this Fowl Cohunks, from the hoarfe Note it 
has, and begin the year from the Coming of the Cohunks, which 
happens in the Beginning of October. 

Thefe Wild Geefe are guarded from cold by a Down, that is 
exquifitely foft and fine, which makes them much more valuable 
for their Feathers than for their Flefh, which is dark and coarfe. 
The Men chad a Bear into the River that got fafe over, not- 
withstanding the continual fire from the Shore upon Him. He 
Seem'd to Swim but heavily, considering it was for his Life. 

Where the Water is Shallow, 'tis no Uncommon thing to fee 
a Bear fitting, in the Summer time, on a heap of Gravel in the 
Middle of the River, not only to cool himfelf, but likewife for 
the Advantage of Fifhing, particularly for a fmall Shell-fiih, that 
is brought down with the Stream. 

In the upper part of James River I have obferved this Several 
times, and wonder'd very much, at fir ft, how fo many heaps of 
fmall Stones came to be piled up in the Water, till at lafl we 
fpy'd a Bear Sitting upon one of them, looking with great attention 
on the Stream, and rakeing up Something with his Paw, which 
I take to be the Shell-fifh above mention'd. 
j (3 It was Ten a'clock this Morning before the Horfes cou'd be 
found, having hidden themfelves among the canes, whereof there 
was great plentv jult at hand. Not far from our camp we went 
over a Brook, whofe Banks were edg'd on both Sides with theie 
canes. But three Miles further we forded a larger Stream, 
which we call'd Low Land Creek, by reafon of the great Breadth 
of Low Grounds inclof'd between that and the River. 

The high Land we travell'd over was very good, and the low 
Grounds promif'd the greatcft Fertility of any I had ever fcen. 

At the End of 4 Miles and 31 1 Poles from where we lay, the 
Line interfered the Dan the fifth time. We had day enough 

Dividing Line. i j g 

. to carry it farther, but the Surveyors cou'd find no Safe ford 1720 
over the River. Oct. 

This obliged us to ride two Miles up the River in queft of a ' v ~~ 
Ford, and by the way we traverft Several Small Indian Fields, 
where we conjeclur'd the SAWRO'S had been ufed to plant 
Corn, the Town where they had liv'd lying Seven or Eio-ht 
Miles more Southerly, upon the Eaftern Side of the River. 

Thefe Indian Fields produe'd a Sweet kind of Grafs, Almoft 
knee-high, which v/as excellent Forage for the Horfes. 

It muft be obferv'd, by the way, that Indian Towns, like 
Religious Houfes, are remarkabler for a fruitful Situation ; for 
being by Nature not very Induftrious, they choofe fuch a Situa- 
tion as will Subfifl them with the leaft Labour. 

The Trees grew Surprifeingly large in this low-Ground, and 
amongfr. the reft we obferv'd a tall kind of hiccory, peculiar to 
the Upper Parts of the Country. It is cover'd with a very 
rough Bark, and produces a Nut with a thick Shell that is eafily 
broken. The Kernel is not fo rank as that of the Common 
Hiccory, but altogether as oily. 

And now I am upon the Subject of thefe Nuts, it may not be 
improper to remark, that a very great benefit might be made of 
Nut-Oyl in this Colony. The Walnuts, the Hiccory-Nuts, 
and Pig-nuts, contain a vaft deal of Oyl, that might be preff'd 
out in great abundance with proper Machines. 

The Trees grow very kindlv, and may be eafily propagated. , 
They bear plenty of Nuts every year, that are now of no other 
ufe in the World but to feed Hogs. 'Tis certain there is a large 
Confumption of this Oyl in Several of our Manufactures, and in 
fome parts of France, as well as in other Countries, it is eaten 
inftead of Oyl-Olive, being tolerably Sweet and wholcfome. 

The Indian Kill'd a fat Buck, and the men brought in four 
Bears and a Brace of wild Turkeys, fo that this v/as truly a 
Land of Plenty, both for man and Beaft. 

1 1 4 The Hiflory of the 

1729 We detaeht a Party of men this morning early in Search of 

Oct. a Ford, who after all cou'd find None that was fafe ; tho' dan- 

v "~" serous as it was. we dctermin'd to make ufe of it, to avoid all 

further delay. Accordingly we rode over a Narrow Ledge of 

Rocks, Some of which lay below the Surface of the Water, and 

fome above it. 

Thofe that lay under the Water were as Slippery as Ice ; and 
the Current glided over them fo fwiftly, that tho' it was only 
Water, it made us perfectly drunk. Yet we were all fo fortu- 
nate as to get fafe over to the Weft Shore, with no other Damage- 
than the Sopping fome of our Bread by the flounceing of the 

The tedious time Spent in finding out this Ford, and in get- 
ting all the Horfes over it, prevented our carrying the Line 
more than 2 Miles and 250 Poles. 

This was the laft time we croft the Dan with our Line, 
which now began to run away more Southerly, with a very flufli 
and plcntifull Stream, the Dcfcription whereof muft be left to 
future Difcoveries, tho' we are well allured by the Indians that 
it runs thro' the Mountains. 

We conducted the Baggage a roundabout way for the Benefit 
of evcner Grounds, and this carry'd us over a broad Levil of 
exceeding rich Land, full of large Trees, with Vines marry'd to 
them, if I may be allow'd to fpeak fo Poetically. 

We untreed a young Cub in our March, that made a brave 
Stand againft one of the beft of our Dogs. This and a Fawn 
were all the Game that came in our way. 

In this day's Journey, as in many others before, we faw beau- 
tiful Marble of Several Colours, and particularly that of the 
Purple kind with white Streaks, and in fome places we came 
acrofs large p ; eces of pure Alabafter. 

We markt out our Quarters on the Banks of a purling 
Stream, which we call'd Cafquade Creek, by reafon of the Mul 

Dividing Line. 1 1 5 

titude of Water-Falls that arc in it. But, different from all 1729 
other Falls that ever I met with, the Rocks over which the Oct. 
water roll'd were Soft, and would Split eafily into broad Flakes, 
very proper for Pavement ; and fome Fragments of it feem'd 
foft enough for Hones,' and the Grain fine enough. 

Near our Camp we found a prickly Shrub, rifeing about a foot 
from the Ground, fomething like that which bears the Barberry, 
tho' much Smaller. The Leaves had a frefh, agreeable Smell, 
and I am perfwaded the Ladies would be apt to fancy a Tea 
made of them, provided thev were told how far it came, and at 
the Same time were obliged to buy it very dear. 

About a Mile to the South-weft of our Camp rofe a regular 
Mount, that commanded a full Profpect of the Mountains, and 
an Extenfive View of the Flat Country. But being, with 
refpe£t to the high Mountains, no more than a Pimple, we call'd 
it by that Name. 

Prefently after Sunfet we difcovered a great Light towards the 
Weft, too bright for a fire, and more refembling the Aurora 
Borealis. This, all our Woodfmen told us, was a Common 
Appearance in the High Lands, and generally foreboded bad 
Weather. Their Explanation happen'd to be exactly true, for 
in the Night we had a Violent Gale of Wind, accompany'd 
with Smart Hail, that rattled frightfully amongft the Trees, tho' 
it was not large enough to do us any Harm. 

We croft Cafquade Creek over a Ledge of Smooth Rocks, 
and then Scuffled thro' a mighty Thicket, at leaft three Miles 
long. The whole was one continued Tradt of rich high Land, 
the woods whereof had been burnt not long before. It was 
then overgrown with Saplings of Oak, Hiccory and Locuft, 
interlac'd with Grape Vines. In [this fine Land, however, we 
met with no Water, till at the End of three Miles we luckily 
came upon a Chryftal Stream, which, like fome Lovers of Con- 

1 1 6 T'he Mijhry of the 

1729 verfation, difcover'd every thing committed to its faithlefs 
° a - Bofom. 

Then we came upon a piece of Rich Low Ground, covered 
with large Trees, of the extent of half a Mile, which made us 
fancy ourfelves not far from the River ; tho' after that we 
afcendcd gently to higher Land, with no other Trees growing 
upon it except Butter-wood, which is one Species of White 

This being a dead Levil, without the leaft Declivity to carry 
off the Water, was moift in many Places, and produc'd abun- 
dance of Grafs. All our Woodfmen call thefe flat Grounds 
High-Land-Ponds, and in their Trading Journeys are glad to 
halt at fuch Places for Several davs together, to recruit their 
Jaded Horfes, efpecially in the Winter Months, when there is 
little or no Grafs to be found in other Places. 

This High-Land-Pond extended above two Miles, our Pal- 
fry's Snatching greedily at the Tufts of Grafs, as they went 
along. After we got over this Level, we defcended fome Stonv 
Hills for about half a Mile, and then came upon a large Branch 
of the River, which we chriften'd the Irvin, in honour of our 
learned ProfeiTbr. This River we forded with much Difficulty 
and fome Danger, by reafon of the Hollow-Spaces betwixt the 
Rocks, into which our Horfes plunged almoft every Step. 

The Irvin runs into the Dan about four miles to the South- 
ward of the Line, and feem'd to roll down its Waters from the 
N.N.W. in a very full and Limpid ftream, and the Murmur it 
made, in tumbling over the Rocks, cauf'd the Situation to appear 
very Romantick, and had almoft made fome of the Company 
Poetical, tho' they drank nothing but Water. 

We encampt on a pleafant Hill, overlooking the River, 
which feem'd to be deep every where except juft where we 
forded. In the mean time, neither that Chain of Rocks, nor any 

'Dividing Line. \ 1 7 

other that wecou'd obierve in this Stream, was fo uninterrupted, 1729 
but that there were Several Breaks where a Canoe, or even a Oct. 
Moderate Flat-bottom'd Boat, might Shear clear. Nor have '"" 
we rcafon to believe there are any other Falls (except the great 
ones, thirty Miles below Monifeep-Foi d) that reach quite acrofs, 
fo as to interrupt the Navigation for Small Craft. And I have 
been inform'd that, even at thofe Great Falls, the Blowing up a 
few Rocks wou'd open a Paflage at leait for canoes, which cer- 
tainly wou'd be an unfpeakable Convenience to the Inhabitants 
of all that beautiful Part of the Country. 

The Indian kill'd a very fat Doe, and came acrofs a Bear, 
which had been put to Death and was half devour'd by a Pan- 
ther. The laft of thefe Brutes reigns abfolute Monarch of the 
Woods, and in the keennefs of his hunger will venture to attack 
a Bear ; tho' then 'tis ever by furprize, as all Beads of the cat 
kind ufe to come upon their Prey. 

Their Play is to take the poor Bears napping, they being 
very drowfy Animals, and tho' they be exceedingly Strong, yet 
their Strength is heavy, while the Panthers are too Nimble and 
cunning to truft themfelves within their Hugg. 

As formidable as this Beaft is to his Fellow Brutes, he never 
has the confidence to venture upon a Alan, but retires from him 
with great refpect, if there be a way open for his Efcape. How- 
ever, it mull be confeflt, his Voice is a little contemptible for a 
Monarch of the Forreft, being not a great deal louder nor more 
awful than the Mewing of a Houfehold Cat. 1 

In South Carolina they call this Beaft a Tygcr, tho' impro- 

1 Some Authors, who have given an Account or' the Southern Continent oi America, ■ 
wou'd make the World beiieve there are Lyons ; but in all likelihood they were 
miftaken, imagining thefe Panthers to be Lyons. What makes this probable is, that 
the Northern and Southern' Parts of America being joirr!d by the Ifthmus of Darien, 
if there were Lyons in cither they would rind their way into the other, the Latitudes 
of each being equally proper for that generous an'mal. 

1 1 8 T/je Bijiory of the 

1729 pcrly, and Co they do in fome parts of the Spanifh Weft Indies. 
Oct. Some of their Authors, a little more properly, complement it 
with the Name of a Leopard. But none of thefe are the 
Growth of America, that we know of. 

The whole Diftance the Surveyors advane'd the Line this 
day amounted to 6 Miles and 30 Poles, which was no fmall 
Journey, confidcring the Grounds we had traverft were exceed- 
ingly rough . and uneven, and in many Places intolerably 
entangled with Bufhes. All the Hills we afcended were en- 
' cumber'd with Stones, many of which feem'd to contain a 
Aletallick Subflance, and the Vallies we croft were interrupted 
with Miry Branches. From the Top of every Hill we cou'd 
difcern diftinclly, at a great Diftance to the Northward, three 
or four Ledges of .Mountains, rifing one above another; and on 
the higheft of all rofe a Single Mountain, very much refemblino- 
a Woman's Breaft. 
19 About four Miles beyond the River Irvin, we forded Matri- 
mony Creek, call'd fo by an unfortunate marry'd man, becaufe 
it was exceedingly noify and impetuous. However, tho' the 
Stream was Clamorous, yet, like thofe Women who make 
. themfelves plaineft heard, it was likewife perfectly clear and 

Still half a Mile further we faw a Small Mountain, about 
five Miles to the North-weft of us, which we call'd the 
Wart, becaufe it appcar'd no bigger than a Wart, in Compari- 
fon of the great Mountains which hid their haughty Heads in 
the Clouds. 

We were not able to extend the Line farther than 5 Miles 
and 135 Poles, notwithstanding we began our Alarch Early in 
the Morning, and did not encamp till it was almoft dark. 

We made it the later by endeavouring to Quarter in fome 
convenient Situation, either for Grafs or Canes. But Ni^ht 

Dividing Line. I j 9 

Surpriiing us, we were oblig'd to Lodge at laft upon High and 1720 
uneven Ground, which was lb overgrown with Shrubs and Sap- Oct. 
lings, that we cou'd hardly fee ten yards around us. r 

The moft melancholy part of the Story was, that our Horfes 
had Short Commons. The poor Creatures were now grown fo 
weak that they Stagger'd when we mounted them. Nor wou'd 
our own Fare have been at all more plentiful, had we not been 
fo provident as to carry a Load of Meat along with us. Indeed, 
the Woods were too thick to fhew us any fort of Game but one 
Wild Turkey, which help'd to enrich our Soup. 

To make us amends, we found abundance of very Sweet 
Grapes, which, with the help of Bread, might have furnifh'd 
out a good Italian Repair., in the Abfence of more Savoury Food. 

The men's Mouths water'd at the Sight of a Prodigious Flight 
of Wild Pigeons, which flew high over our Heads to the South- 

The Flocks of thefe Birds of Paflage are fo amazingly great, 
Sometimes, that they darken the Sky ; nor is it uncommon for 
them to light in fuch Numbers on the Larger Limbs of Mul- 
berry-Trees and Oaks as to break them down. 

In their Travels they make vaft Havock amongft the Acorns 
and Berries of all Sorts, that they wall whole Forrefts in a fnort 
time, and leave a Famine behind them for moft other Creatures ; 
and under Some Trees where they light, it is no Strange thing 
to find the ground cover'd three Inches thick with their Dung. 
Thefe Wild Pigeons commonly breed in the uninhabited parts 
of Canada, and as the Cold approaches aflemblc their Armies 
and bend their Courfe Southerly, Shifting their Quarters, like 
many of the Winged kind, according to the Seafon. But the 
moft remarkable thing in their Flight, as we are told, is that 
they never have been obferv'd to return to the Northern Coun- 
tries the fame way they came from thence, but take quite an- 
other Rout, I fuppofe for their better Subfiftence. 

i2o The Hijiory of the 

jy2Q ^ n thefe long Flights they are very lean, and their Flefh is 
061. far from being white or tender, tho' good enough upon a March, 
* ' when Hunger is the fauce, and makes it go down better than 
Truffles and Morels wou'd do. 
20 It was now Sunday, which we had like to have fpent in Fad- 
ing as well as Prayer ; for our Men, taking no Care for the 
Morrow, like good Chriflians, but bad Travellers, had improvi- 
dently Devour'd all their Meat for Supper. 

They were order'd in the Morning to drive up their Horfes, 
left they fhou'd ftray too far from the Camp and be loft, in cafe 
they were let alone all day. At their Return they had the very 
great Comfort to behold a monftrous fat Bear, which the Indian 
had kill'd very Seafonably for their Breakfaft. 

We thought it ftill neceiTary to make another Reduction of 
our Bread, from four to three Pounds a Week to every man, 
computing that we had ftill enough in that Proportion to laft us 
Three weeks longer. 

The Atmofphere was fo fmoaky all round us, that the Moun- 
tains were again grown invifible. This happen'd not from the 
Hazynefs of the Sky, but from the fireing of the Woods bv the 
Indians, for we were now near the Route the Northern Savages 
take when they go out to War againft the Cataubas and other 
Southern Nations. 

On their way the Fires they make in their camps are left 
burning, which, catching the dry Leaves that ly near, foon put 
the adiacent Woods into a flame. 

Some of our men in Search of their Horfes difcovered one of 
thofe Indian camps, where not leng before they had been Fur- 
ring and dreiTing their Skins. 

And now I mention the Northern Indians, it may not be im- 
proper to take Notice of their implacable Hatred to thofe of the 
South. Their Wars are everlafting, without any Peace, Enmity 
being the only Inheritance among them that defcends from Fa- 

Dividing Line. 121 

ther to Son, and either Party will march a thoufand Miles to 1720 
take their Revenge upon fuch Hereditary Enemies. Oct. 

Thefe long Expeditions are commonly carry'd on in the follow- v ~ 
ing Manner ; Some Indian, remarkable for his Prowefs, that has 
raif'd himfelf to the Reputation of a War-Captain, declares his 
Intention of paying a Vifit to fome fouthern Nation ; Hereupon 
as many of the Young Fellows as have either a Strong Third: 
of Blood or Glory, lift themfelves under his command. 

With thefe Volunteers he goes from One Confederate Town 
to another, lilting all the Rabble he can, til he has gather'd to- 
gether a competent Number for Mifchief. 

Their Arms are a Gun and Tomahawk, and all the Provi- 
fions they carry from Home is a Pouch of Rockahominy. Thus 
provided and accoutr'd, they march towards their Enemy's 
Country, not in a Bodv, or by a certain Path, but Straggling in 
Small Numbers, for the greater convenience of Hunting and 
paffing along undifcover'd. 

So foon as they approach the Grounds on which the Enemy 
is ufed to hunt, they never kindle any Fire themfelves, for fear 
of being found out by the fmoak, nor will they Shoot at any- 
kind of Game, tho' they fhou'd be half Famifht, left they might 
alarm their Foes, and put them upon their Guard. 

Sometimes indeed, while they are ftill at fome diftance, they 
roaft either Venifon or Bear, till it is very dry, and then having 
Strung it on their Belts, wear it round their Middle, eating very 
Sparingly of it, becaufe they know not when they ftiall meet 
with a frefh Supply. But coming nearer, they begin to look all 
round the Hemifphere, to watch if any Smoke afccnds, and liftcn 
continually for the Report of Guns, in order to make fome 
happy Difcovery for their own advantage. 

It is amazing to fee their Sagacity in difcerning the Track of 
a Human Foot, even amongft dry leaves, which to our Shorter 
Sight is quite undifcoverable. 


122 The Hijiory of the 

1729 If by one or more of thofe Signs they be able to find out the 
{jti. Camp of any Southern Indians, they Squat down in fome Thicket, 
and keep themfelves hum and Snug till it is dark ; Then creep- 
ing up Softly, they approach near enough to obferve all the 
Motions of the Enemy. And about two a Clock in the Morn- 
ing, when they conceive them to be in a Profound Sleep, for 
they never keep Watch and Ward, pour in a Volley upon them, 
each Singling out his Man. The Moment they have difcharg'd 
their Pieces, they rum in with their Tomahawks, and make lure 
work of all that arc difabled. 

Sometimes, when they find the Enemy Afleep around their 
little Fire, they firft Pelt them with little Stones to wake them, 
and when they get up, fire in upon them, being in that pofture 
a better Mark than when proftrate on the Ground. 

Thofe that are kill'd of the Enemy, or difabled, they Scalp, 
that is, they cut the Skin all round the Head juft below the hair, 
and then clapping their Feet to the poor Mortal's Shoulders, 
pull the Scalp off clean, and carry it home in Triumph, being as 
proud of thofe Trophies, as the Jews ufed to be of the Forefkins 
of the Philiftines. 

This way of Scalping was praclifed by the Ancient Scythians, 
who uf'd thefe hairy Scalps as Towels at Home, and Trappings 
for their Horfes when they went abroad.* 

They alio made Cups of their Enemies' Skulls, in which they 
drank Profperity to their country, and Confufion to all their 

The Pri'foncrs they happen to take alive in thefe expeditions 
generally pafs their time very Scurvily. They put them to all 
the Tortures that ingenious Malice and cruelty can invent. And 
(what {hews the bafenefs of the Indian Temper in Perfection) 
they never fail to treat thofe with the greateft Inhumanity that 
have diftinguifh'd themfelves moll: by their Braverv ; and, if he be 
a War-Captain, they do him the Honour to roaft him alive, and 

Dividing Line. 123 

diifribute a Collop to all that had a Share in Stealing the Vic- 17-20 
tory. 1 Oct. 

They are very cunning in finding out new ways to torment v ~~' 
their unhappy Captives, tho', like thofe of Hell, their ufual 
Method is by Fire. Sometimes they Barbacue them over live- 
Coals, taking them off every now and then, to prolong their 
Mifery ; at other times they will Stick Sharp Pieces of Light- 
wood all over their Body's, and fetting them afire, let them burn 
down into the Flefh to the very Bone. And when they take a 
Stout Fellow, that they believe able to endure a great deal, they 
will tear all the Flefh off his Bones with red hot Pincers. 

While thefe and iiich like Barbarities are practifing, the Vic- 
tors are fo far from being touch'd with Tendernefs and Com- 
paflion, that they dance and Sing round thefe wretched Mortals, 
fhewing all the Marks of Pleaiure and Jollity. And if fuch 
cruelties happen to be executed in their Towns, they employ 
their Children in tormenting the Prifoners, in order to extinguifh. 
in them betimes all Sentiments of Humanity. 

In the mean time, while thefe poor Wretches are uuder the 
Anguiih of all this inhuman Treatment, they difdain fo much as 
to groan, Sigh, or fhew the leaft Sign of Difmay or concern, fo 
much as in their Looks ; on the Contrary, they make it a Point 
of Honour all the time to Soften their Features, and look as 
pleaf'd as if they were in the Actual Enjoyment of Some De- 
light ; and if they never fang before in their Lives, they will be 
fure to be Melodious on this fad and Difmal Occafion. 

x Tho' who can reproach the poor Indians for this, when Homer makes his cele- 
brated Hero, Achilles, drag the Body of Hector at the Tail of his chariot, for having 
fought gallantly in defence of his Country. Nor was Alexander the Great, with all 
his Fam'd Gcnerofity, lefs inhuman to the brave Tyrians, icoo of whom he order'd 
to be crucify M in cold Blood, For no other fault but for having defended their City 
moil courageously againft Him, dureing a Siege of Seven Months. And what was ftill 

more brutal, he dragg'd 2livc at the Tail of bis Chariot, thro' all the Streets, for 

defending the Town with fo much Vigour. 

1 24 The Hiftory of the 

1729 So prodigious a Degree of Paflive Valour in the Indians is the 

0&- more to be worieter'd at, becaufe in all Articles of Danger they 

""^"^are apt to behave like Cowards. And what is frill more Sur- 

prizeing, the very Women difcover, on fuch Occafions, as great 

Fortitude and Contempt, both of Pain and Death, as the Gal- 

lanteft of their Men can do. 

21 The Apprehenfions we had of lofing the Horfes in thefe Copfc 

Woods were too well founded, nor were the Precautions we 

ufd Ycfterday of driveing them up Sufficient to prevent their 

Straying away afterwards, notwithstanding they were fecurely 


We therefore Order'd the men out early this Morning to look 
diligently for them, but it was late before any cou'd be found. 
It feems they had draggled in quefr. of Forrage, and, befides ail 
that, the Bufhes grew thick enough to conceal them from being 
Seen at the Smalleft Diftance. One of the People was fo be- 
wilder'd in fearch of his Horfe, that he loll Himfelf, being no 
great Forefter. 

However, becaufe we w r ere willing to fave time, we left two 
of our molt expert Woodfmen behind to beat all the Adjacent 
Woods in Quell of Him. 

In the mean while the Surveyors proceeded vigouroufly on 
their Bufmefs, but were fo perplext with Thickets at their fir ft 
fetting off, that their Progrefs was much retarded. 

They were no fooner over that Difficulty, but they were 
oblig'd to encounter another. The reft of their day's-Work lay 
over very Sharp Hills, where the dry leaves were fo Slippery 
that there was hardly any hold for their Feet. Such Rubbs as 
thefe prevented them from Meafuring more than 4 Miles and 
270 Poles. 

Upon the Sides of thefe Hills the Soil was rich, tho' full of 
Stones, and the Trees rcafonably large. 

The Smoak continued flill to Veil the Mountains from our 

Dividing Line. 125 

Sight, which made us long for Rain, or a briik Gale of Wind, i^ 2 q 
to difperfe it. Nor was the lofs of this wild Profpedt all our Oft. 
concern, but we were apprehenfive left the Woods fhou'd be ' '"""*" 
burnt in the Courfe of our Line before us, or happen to take fire 
behind us, either of which wou'd effectually have Starv'd the 
Horfes, and made us all Foot Soldiers. But we were fo happy, 
thank God ! as to efcape this Misfortune in every Part of our 

We were exceedingly uneafy about our loft man, knowing he 
had taken no Provifion of any kind, nor was it much Advantage 
towards his Support, that he had taken his Gun along with him, 
becaufe he had rarely been guilty of putting any thing to Death. 

He had unluckily wander'd from the Camp Several ivlilcs, 
and after Steering Sundry unfuccefsfull Courfes, in order to re- 
turn, either to us or to the Line, was at length fo tired he could 
go no Farther. In this Diftrefs he fat himfelf down under a 
Tree, to recruit his jaded Spirits, and at the fame time indulge a 
few Melancholy Reflections. 

Famine was the hrft Phantom that appear'd to him, and was 
the more frightfull, becaufe he fancy'd himfelf not quite Bear 
enough to Subfift long upon licking his Paws. 

In the mean time the two Perfons we had fent after him 
hunted diligently great part of the day without coming upon his 
Track. They fir'd their Pieces towards every Point of the 
Compafs, but cou'd perceive no fireing in return. However, 
advancing a little farther, at laft they made a lucky Shot, that 
our Strag-ojer had the good Fortune to hear, and he returning the 
Salute, they foon found each other with no Small Satisfaction. 
But tho' they lighted of the man, the}' cou'd by no means light 
of his Horfe, and therefore he was oblig'd to be a Foot Soldier 
all the reft of the Journey. 

Our Indian fhot a Bear fo prodigioufly fat, that there was no 
way to kill Him but by fireing in at his Ear. 

126 The Hijlory of the 

1729 The fore part of the Skull of that Animal being guarded by a 
(Jet. double Bone, is hardly penetrable, and when it is very fat, a 
v "~" Bullet aim'd at his Body is apt to lofe its force, before it reaches 
the Vitals. 

This Animal is of the Dog kind, and our Indians, as well as 
Woodfmen, are as fond of its Fleih as the Chinefe can be of 
that of the Common Hound. 
22 Early in the Morning we fent back two men to make further 
Search for the horfe that was Stray'd away. We were unwil- 
ling the Poor man fhou'd Suftain fuch a Damage as wou'd eat 
out a large Part of his Pay, or that the Publick fhou'd be at the 
Expenfe of rcemburfing Him for it. 

. Thefe forefters hunted all over the Neighbouring Woods, and 
took as much pains as if the Horfe had been their own Property, 
but all their Diligence was to no purpofe. 

The Surveyors, in the mean time, being fearful of leaving 
thefe men too far behind, advane'd the Line no farther than One 
Mile and 230 Poles. 

As we rode along we found no lefs than three Bears and a fat 
Doe, that our Indian, who went out before us, had thrown in 
our Courfe, and we were very glad to pick them up. 

About a Mile from the Camp we croft Miry Creek, So call'd 
becaufe Several of the Horfes were mired in its Branches. About 
230 Poles beyond that, the Line interfected another River, that 
feem'd to be a Branch of the Irvin, to.which we gave the Name 
of the Mayo, in complement to the other of our Surveyors. It 
was about 50 Yards wide where we forded it, being juft below 
a Ledge of Rocks, which reacht acrofs the River, and made a 
natural cafquade. 

Our Horfes cou'd hardly keep their feet over thefe Slippery 
Rocks, which gave Some of their Riders no fmall Palpitation. 

This River forks about a Quarter of a Mile below the Ford, 
and has Some Scattering Canes growing near the Mouth of it. 

Dividhig Li?ie. 127 

We pitcht our Tent on the Weftern Banks of the Mayo, for i~ 2 o 
the Pleafure of being lull'd to Sleep by the Cafquade. Here our Oct. 
Hunters had leifure to go out and try their Fortunes, and return'd v ~~ v — 
loaden with Spoil. They brought in no lefs than Six Bears, 
exceedingly fat, fo that the frying pan had no reft all Night. 
We had now the Opportunity of trying the fpeed of thefe lump- 
ifti Animals by a fair Courfe it had with the Nimbleft of our 

A Cubb of a year Old will run very fail, becaufe, being upon 
his growth, he is never encumber'd with too much fat ; but the 
Old ones are more Sluggifh and unwieldy, efpecially when Mad 
is Plenty. Then their Nimbleft Gait is only a heavy Gallop, 
and their Motion is ftill Slower down hill, where they are oblig'd 
to Sidle very awkwardly, to keep their Lights from rifeing up 
into their Throat. 

Thefe Beafts always endeavour to avoid a man, except when 
they are wounded, or happen to be engaged in the Protection of 
their Cubbs. 

By the force of thefe Inftincls and that of Self-Prefervation, 
they will now and then throw oft' all Reverence for their Maker's 
Image.- For that Reafon, excefs of hunger will provoke them 
to the fame Defperate Attack, for the fupport of their Being. 

A A'lemorable Inftance of the laft Cafe is laid to have hap- 
pen'd not long ago in New England, where a Bear alTaulted 
a Man juft by his own Door, and rearing himfelf upon his 
Haunches, ofTer'd to take him lovingly into his Hug. But the 
Man's Wife obferving the Danger her Hufband was in, had the 
courage to run behind the Bear, and thruft her two Thumbs 
into his Eyes. This made Bruin quit the Man, and turn fhort 
upon the Woman to take his Revenge, but She had the Prefence 
of mind to fpring back with more than Female Agility, and fo 
both their Lives were prefcrv'd. 

At the Diftance of 62 Poles from where we lay, we croft the 23 

128 The Hiflory of the 

1729 South Branch of what we took for the Irvin, nor was it without 
Uct. DifHculty we got over, tho' it happen'd to be without Damage. 

Great part of the way after that was Mountainous, fo that we 
were no lboner got down one Hill, but we were oblig'd to climb 
up another. Only for the laft Mile of our Stage, we encoun- 
ter'd a Locuft Thicket that was level, but interlac'd terribly 
with Bryars and Grape Vines. 

Wc forded a large creek, no lefs than five times, the Banks 
of which were fo ftecp that we were fore'd to cut them down 
with a Hough. 

We gave it the Name of Crooked creek, becaufe of its fre- 
quent Meanders. The Sides of it were planted with Shrub- 
Canes, extremely inviting to the Horfes, which were now quite 
jaded with clambering up fo many Precipices, and tugging thro ? 
fo many difmal Thickets, notwithstanding which we pufht the 
Line this day Four Miles and 69 Poles. The men were fo un- 
thrifty this Morning as to bring but a Small Portion of their 
Abundance along with them. This was the more unlucky, be- 
caufe we cou'd difcover no Sort of Game the whole livelong Day. 
Woodfmen are certainly good Chriftians in one refpect, at leaft, 
that they always leave the Morrow to care for itfelf; tho' for 
that very reafon they ought to pray more fervently for their 
Dayly Bread than mo ft of them remember to do. 

The Mountains were ftill conceal'd from our Eyes by a cloud 
of Smoak. As we went along we were alarmed at the Sio-ht of 
a great Fire, which fhewed itfelf to the Northward. This made 
our fmall Corps march in clofer Order than we uf'd to do, left 
perchance we might be waylaid by Indians. It made us look 
out Sharp to fee if we cou'd difcover any Track or other Token 
of thefe infidious Forrefters, but found none. In the mean time 
we came often upon the Track of Bears, which can't without 
fome Skill be diftinguifht from that of Human Creatures, made 
with Naked Feet. And Indeed a Youne Woodfinan wou'd be 

Dividing hive. 1 29 

puzzled to find out the Difference, which confifts principally in 1-29 
a Bear's Paws being fomething Smaller than a Man's foot, and O&. 
in its leaving fometimes the Mark of its Claws in the Impreflion ' Y 
made upon the Ground. 

The Soil where the Locuft Thicket grew, was exceedingly 
rich, as it conftantly is, where that kind of Tree is Naturally 
and largely produe'd. 

But the Defolation made there lately, either by Fire or Cater- 
pillars, had been fo general, that we could not fee a Tree of any 
Bignefs {landing within our Profpecl. And the Reafon why a 
Fire makes fuch a Havock in thefc lonely Parts is this. 

The Woods are not there burnt every year, as they generally 
are amongft the Inhabitants. But the dead Leaves and Tram 
of many years are heapt up together, which being at length 
kindled by the Indians that happen to pafs that way, furnifn 
fewel for a conflagration that carries all before it. 

There is a beautiful Range of Hills, as levil as a Terrafs- 
Walk, that overlooks the Valley through which Crooked Creek 
conveys its Spiral Stream. 

This Terrafs runs pre'.ty near Eaft and Weft, about two 
Miles South of the Line, and is almoft Parallel with it. 

The Horfes had been too much harafT'd to permit us to ride 
at all out of our way, for the pleafure of any Profpe£t, or the 
gratification of any Curiofity. This confin'd us to the Narrow 
Sphere of our Bufinefs, and is at the fame time a juft Excufe for 
not animating our Story with greater Variety. 

The Surveyors went out the fooner this Morning, by reafon 24 
the men loft very little time in Cooking their Breakfaft. They 
had made but a Spare Meal over Night, leaving nothing but the 
Hide of a Bear for the Morrow. Some of the keeneft of them 
got up at Midnight to Cook that nice Morfcl after the Indian 


130 %be IUJhry of the 

I72Q They fir ft Singed the Hair clean off", that none of it might 

0£fc. Stick in their Throats; then they boil'd the Pelt into Soup, 

-*-v— -^ which had a Stratum of Greafe Swimming upon it full half an 

Inch Thick. However, they commended this Difh extremely ; 

tho' I believe the Praifes they gave it were more owing to their 

good Stomach than to their good Taft. 

The Line was extended 6 Miles and 300 Poles, and in that 
Diflance crofft Crooked Creek at leaft eight times more. 

We were forcT: to fcuffle through a Thicket about two Miles 
in breadth, planted with Locufts and hiccory Sapplings, as clofe 
as they cou'd {land together. Amongft thefe there was hardly 
a Tree of Tolerable Growth within View. It was a dead Plane 
of Several Miles Extent, and very fertile Soil. Beyond that the 
Woods were open for about three Miles, but Mountainous. 
All the reft of our Day's Journey was pefter'd with Bufhes 
and Grape Vines, in the thickeft of which we were obliged to 
take up our Quarters, near one of the Branches of Crooked 

This Night it was the Men's good fortune to fare very fump- 
tuoufly. The Indian had kill'd two large Bears, the fateft of 
which he had taken napping. One of the People too Shot a 
Raccoon, which is alio of tho Dog-kind, and as big as a fmall 
Fox, tho' its Legs are Shorter, and when fat has much a higher 
relifh than either Mutton or Kid. 'Tis naturally not Carniver- 
ous, but very fond of Indian corn and Parfimons. 

The fat of this Animal is reckon'd very good to affwage 
Swellings and Inflammations. Some old Maids are at the Trouble 
of breeding them up tame, for the pleafure of feeing them play 
over as many Humorous Tricks as a Munkey. It climbs up 
fmall Trees, like a Bear, by embraceing the Bodies of them. 

Till this Night we had accuftom'd ourfelves to go to Bed in 
our Night-Gowns, believing we fhou'd thereby be better fecur'd 

Dividing Line. i 3 1 

from the cold : but upon tryal found we lay much warmer by i ~ 2C) 
Stripping to our Shirts, and Spreading our Gowns over us. Oil. 

A True Woodfman, if he have no more than a Single Blanket ^""^ — 
conftantly pulls all off, and, lying on one part of it, draws the 
other over him, believing it much more refrefhing to ly fo, than 
in his cloaths ; and if he find himfelf not warm enough, Shifts 
his Lodging to Leeward of the Fire, in which Situation the 
fmoak will drive over him, and effectually correct the cold Dews 
that wou'd otherwife defcend upon his Perfon, perhaps to his 
great damage. 

The Air clearing up this Morning, we were again agreeably 25 
furprized with a full ProfpecT: of the Mountains. They difcover'd 
themfelves both to the North and South of us, on either fide, 
not diftant above ten Miles, according to our beft Computation. 

We cou'd now fee thofe to the North rife in four dlftinfl: 
Ledges, one above another, but thofe to the South form'd only 
a Single Ledge, and that broken and interrupted in many Places ; 
or rather they were only tingle Mountains detacht from each 

One of the Southern Mountains was fo vaftly high, it feem'd 
to hide its head in the Clouds, and the Weft End of it terminated 
in a horrible Precipice, that we call'd the Defpairing Lover's 
Leap. The Next to it, towards the Eaft, was lower, except at 
one End, where it heav'd itfelf up in the form of a vaft Stack of 

The Courfe of the Northern Mountains feem'd to tend Weft- 
South-Weft, and thofe to the Southward very near Weft. We 
cou'd defcry other Mountains ahead of us, exactly in the Courfe 
of the Line, tho' at a much greater diftancc. In this Point of 
View, the Ledges on the right and Left both feem'd to clofe, 
and form a Natural Amphi-Theater. 

Thus 'twas our Fortune to be vvedg'd in betwixt thefe two 
Ranges of Mountains, infomuch that if our Line had run ten 

132 The llijiory of the 

1720 Miles on cither Side, it had butted before this day either upon 
OcL one or the other, both of them now Stretching away plainly to 
^~~^ the Ea ft ward of us. 

It had rain'd a little in the Night, which difperft the fmoak 
and open'd this Romantick Scene to us all at once, tho' it was 
again hid from our Eyes as we mov'd forwards, by the rough 
Woods we had the Misfortune to be engag'd with. The Bufhes 
were fo thick for near four Miles together, that they tore the 
Deer-Skins to Pieces, that guarded the Bread-Bags. Tho', as 
rough as the Woods were, the Soil was extremely good all the 
way, being wafht down from the Neighbouring Hills into the 
Plane Country. Notwithstanding all thefe Difficulties, the Sur- 
veyors drove on the line 4 Miles and 205 Poles. 

In the mean time we were fo unlucky as to meet with no 
Sort of Game the whole day, fo that the men were oblig'd to 
make a frugal diftribution of what little they left in the Morning. 

We encampt upon a fmall Rill, where the Horfes came off as 
temperatly as their Matters. They were by this time grown fo 
thin, by hard Travel and Spare Feeding, that henceforth, in 
pure Companion, we chofe to perform the greater Part of the 
Journey on foot. And as our Baggage was by this time grown 
much lighter, we divided it, after the be ft Manner, that every 
Horfe's Load might be proportion'd to the Strength he had left. 
Tho', after all the prudent Meafures we cou'd take, we perceiv'd 
the Hills began to rife upon us fo faft in our Front, that it wou'd 
be impoffible for us to proceed much farther. 

We faw very few Squirrels in the upper parts, becaufe the 
Wild Cats devour them unmercifully. Of thefe there are four 
kinds : The Fox Squirrel, the Gray, the Flying, and the Ground- 

Thefe laft refemble a Rat in every thing but the Tail, and the 
black and RufTet Streaks that run down the Length of their little 

Dividing Line. I 3 3 

We found our way grow ftill more Mountainous, after ex- 1729 

tending the Line 300 Poles farther. We came then to a Rivulet Odt. 

that ran with a Swift Current towards the South. This we V^~* 

fancy'd to he another Branch of the Irvin, tho' fome of thefe 

men, who had been Indian Traders, judg'd it rather to be the 

head of Deep River, that difcharges its Stream into that of Pee 

Dee ; but this feem'd a wild Conjecture. 

The Hills beyond that River were exceedingly lofty, and not > 
to be attempted by our Jaded Palfreys, which could now hardly 
drag their Legs after them upon level Ground. Befides, the 
Bread began to grow Scanty, and the Winter Seafon to advance 
apace upon us. 

We had likevvife reafon to apprehend the Confequcnces of 
being intercepted by deep Snows, and the Swelling of the many 
Waters between us and Home. The firft of thefe Misfortunes 
would ftarve all our Horfes, and the Other ourfelves, by cutting 
off our Retreat, and obliging us to Winter in thofe Defolate 
Woods. Thefe confiderations determin'd us to Stop fhort here, 
and pufh our Adventures no farther. The lair. Tree we markt 
was a Red Oak, growing on the Bank of the River; and to 
make the Place more remarkable, we blaz'd all the Trees 
around it. 

We found the whole Diftance from Corotuck Inlet to the 
Rivulet where we left off, to be, in a Strait Line, Two Hundred 
and Forty-one Miles and Two Hundred and Thirty Poles. 
And from the Place where the Carolina CommiiTioners defertcd 
us, 72 Miles and 302 Poles. This lafl part of the Journey was 
generally very hilly, or elfe grown up with troublefome Thickets 
and underwoods, all which our Carolina Friends had the Difcre- 
tion to avoid. 

We encampi in a dirty Valley near the Rivulet above-rnen- 
tion'd, for the advantage of the Canes, and fo facrificed our own 
Convenience for that of our Horfes. 

134 F/je Tiiftory of the 

1729 There was a Small Mountain half a Mile to the Northward 
Oct. oi" us, which we had the Curiofity to Climb up in the Afternoon, 
"~~ v in Order to enlarge our Profpccl:. From thence we were able 
to difcover where the two Ledges of Mountains cloPd, as near 
as we cou'd gucfs, about 30 Miles to the Weft of us, and 
lamented that our prefent circumflances wou'd not permit us to 
advance the Line to that Place, which the Hand of Nature had 
made fo very remarkable. 

Not far from our Quarters one of the men pickt up a pair of 
Elk's Horns, not very large, and difcover'd the Track of the Elk 
that had Shed them. It was rare to find any Tokens of thole 
Animals fo far to the South, becaufe they keep commonly to the 
Northward of 37 degrees, as the Buffaloes, for the mo ft part, 
confine themfelves to the Southward of that Latitude. 

The Elk is full as big as a Horfe, and of the Deer kind. 
The Stags only have Horns, and thofe exceedingly large w nd 
Spreading. Their Colour is Something lighter than that of the 
Red Deer, and their Flefh tougher. Their fwifteft Speed is a 
large trot, and in that Motion they turn their Horns back upon 
their Necks, and Cock their Nofes aloft in the Air. Nature 
has taught them this Attitude to fave their Antlers from being 
entangled in the Thickets, which they always retire to. They 
are very fhy, and have the Senfe of Smelling fo exquifite that 
they wind a man at a great diftance. For this reafon they are 
Seldom Seen but when the Air is moift, in which Cafe their 
fmell is not fo Nice. 

They commonly herd together, and the Indians fav, if one of 
the Drove happen by lbme Wound to be difabled from makino- 
his Efcape, the reft will forfake their fears to defend their Friend, 
which they will do with great obftinacy, till they are kill'd upon 
the Spot. Tho', otherwife, they are fo alarm'd at the Sight of 
a man, that 1.0 avoid him they will Sometimes throw themfelves 
down very high Precipices into the River. 

Dividing Line. 135 

A mifadventure happcn'd here, which gave us no Small per- i~2Q 
plexity. One of the CommiOi oners was fo unlucky as to bruifc Oct. 
his Foot againft a Stump, which brought on a formal Fit of the y ~~ 

It muft bcown'd there cou'd not be a more unfeafonable time, 
nor a more improper Situation, for any one to be attackt bv that 
cruel DiiTemper. The Joint was fo inflam'd that he cou'd 
neither draw Shoe nor Boot upon it ; and to ride without either 
wou'd have expof'd him to fo many rude knocks and Bruifes, in 
thofe rough Woods, as to be intolerable even to a Stoick. 

It was happy, indeed, that we were to reft here the next day, 
being Sunday, that there might be leifure for trying fome Speedy 
Remedy. Accordingly he was perfuadcd to bathe his Foot in 
Cold Water, in Order to repel the Humour and allwage the 
Inflammation. This made it lefs painful, and gave us hopes, 
too, of reducing the Swelling in a Short time. 

Our men had the fortune to kill a Brace of Bears, a fat Buck, 
and a Wild Turkey, all which paid them with Intereft for Yef- 
terday's Abftinence. This conltant and Seafonable Supply of 
all our daily Wants made us reflect thankfully on the Bounty of 

And that we might not be unmindful of being all along fed by 
Heaven in this great and Solitary Wildernefs, we agreed to 
Wear in our Hats the Maofti, which is, in Indian, the Beard of 
a Wild Turkey-Cock, and on our Breafts the Figure of that 
Fowl with its Wings extended, and holding in its Claws a 
fcrowl, with this Motto, " VICE COTURNICUM," mean- 
ing that we had been Supported by them in the Wildernefs in 
the room of Ouails. 

This being Sunday we were not wanting in our Thanks to 27 
Heaven for the Conftant Support and Protection we had been 
favour'd with. Nor did our Chaplain fail to put us in mind ot 
Our Duty by a Sermon proper for the Occafion, 

136 The Hijiory of the 

1729 We ordcr'd a Stri£t Inquiry to he made into the Quantity of 

Oct. Bread we had left, and found no more than wou'd Subfift us a 

"^ Fortnight at Short Allowance. We made a fair Difrribution of 

our whole Stock, and at the Same time recommended to the 

Men to manage this, their laft Stake, to the beft advantage, not 

knowing how long they would be oblig'd to live upon it. 

We likewife directed them to keep a Watchfull eye upon 
their Horfes, that none of them might be miffing the next Morn- 
ing, to hinder our Return. 

There fell fome Rain before Noon, which made our Camp 
more a Bogg than it was before. This moift Situation began 
to infect, fome of the men with Fevers, and fome with Fluxes, 
which however we foon remov'd with Peruvian Bark and Ipo- 

In the Afternoon we marcht up again to the top of the Hill 
to entertain our Eyes a Second time with the View of the 
Mountains, but a perverfe Fog arofe that hid them from our 

In the Evening we deliberated which way it might be moft 
proper to return. We had at iirft intended to crofs over at the 
foot of the Mountains to the head of James River, that we 
might be able to defcribe that Natural Boundary fo far. But, on 
Second Thoughts, we found many good Reafons againft that 
laudable Defign, Such as the Weakneis of our Horfes, the Scan- 
tinefs of our Bread, and the near approach of Winter. We had 
Caufe to believe the way might be full of Hills, and the farther 
we went towards the North, the more danger there wou'd be of 
Snow. Such confiderations as thefc detcrmin'd us at laft to 
make the beft of our way back upon the Line, which was the 
Straiteft, and Confequently the fhorteft way to the Inhabitants. 
We knew tne worft of that Courfe, and were fure of a beaten 
Path all the way, while we were totally ignorant what Difficul- 
ties and Dangers the other Courfe might be attended with. So 

Dividing Line. 137 

Prudence got the better for once of Curiofity, and the Itch for 1729 
new Dit'coveries gave Place to Self-prefervation. 

Our Inclination was the Stronger to crofs over according to 
the Courfe of the Mountains, that we might find out whether 
James River and Appamattock River head there, or run quite 
thro' them. 'Tis Certain that Potomec pafles in a large Stream 
thro' the Main Ledge, and then divides itfelf into two confidera- 
ble Rivers. That which Stretches away to the Northward is 
call'd Cohungaroota, 1 and that which flows to the South-weft, 
hath the Name of Sharantow. 

The Courfe of this laft Stream is near parallel to the Blue 
Ridge of Mountains, at the diftance only of about three or four 
Miles. Tho' how far it may continue that Courfe has not yet 
been fufficiently difcover'd, but fome Woodfmen pretend to fay 
it runs as far as the fource of Roanoak ; Nay, they are fo very 
particular as to tell us that Roanoak, Sharantow, and another 
Wide Branch of Miflaflippi, all head in one and the Same 

What dependence there may be upon this Conjectural Geo- 
graphy, I wont pretend to fay, tho' 'tis certain that Sharantow 
keeps clofe to the Mountains, as far as we are acquainted with 
its Tendency. We are likewife aflur'd that the South Branch 
of James River, within lefs than 20 Miles Eaft of the Main 
Ledge, makes an Elbow, and runs due South-weft, which 
is parallel with the Mountains on this Side. But how far it 
Stretches that way, before it returns, is not yet certainly known, 
no more than where it takes its Rile. 

In the mean time it is Strange that our Woodfmen have not 
had Curiofity enough to inform themfelves more exactly of thefe 

1 Which by a Late Survey has been found to extend above aoo Miles before it 
reaches its Source, in a Mountain, from whence Allegany, one of the Branches & 
Milfalliippi, takes its Rife, and runs South- Weft, as this River dos South-Eat!. 

138 The Hiftory of the 

JJ2g particulars, and it is Stranger Still that the Government has 
Oct. never thought it worth the Expenfe of making an accurate Sur- 
vey of the Mountains, that we might be Matters of jhat Natural 
Fortification before the French, who in fome Places have Settle- 
ments not very diftant from it. 

It therefore concerns his Majefty's Service very nearly, and 
the Safety of His Subjects in this part of the World, to take 
PofTeflion of fo important a Barrier in time, left our good Friends, 
the French, and the Indians, thro' their Means, prove a per- 
petual Annoyance to thcfe Colonies. 

Another Reafon to invite us to Secure this oreat Ledge of 
Mountains is, the Probability that very Valuable Alines may be 
difcover'd there. Nor wou'd it be at all extravagant to hope for 
Silver Mines, among the reft, becaufe Part of thefe Mountains 
ly exactly In the fame Parallel, as well as upon the Same Con- 
tinent with New Mexico, and the Mines of St. Barb. 
28 We had given Orders for the Horfes to be brought up early, 
but the likelyhood of more Rain prevented our being over-haftv 
in decamping. Nor were we out in our conjectures, for about 
ten a'clock it began to fall very plentifully. 

Our Commiflioner's Pain began now to abate, as the Swelling 
encreaf'd. He made an excellent Figure for a Mountaineer, 
with one boot of Leather and the other of Flannel. Thus ac- 
cowtur'd, he intended to mount, if the Rain had not happen'd 
opportunely to prevent him. 

Tho', in Truth, it was hardly poflible for Him to ride with fo 
Slender a Defenfe, without expofeing his Foot to be bruiPd and 
tormented by the Saplings, that itood thick on either fide of the 
Path. It was therefore a moft Seafonable Rain for Him, as it 
gave more time for his Diiiemper to abate. 

Tho' it may be very difficult to find a certain Cure for the 
Gout, yet it is not improbable but fome things may eafe the 
Pain, and Shorten the Fits of it. And thofe Medicines are moft 

Dividifig Li?ie. 139 

likely to do this, that Supple the Parts, and clear the Paffage 1729 
Through the Narrow Veffels, that are the Seat of this cruel Oct. 
Difeafe. Nothing will do this more Suddenly than Rattie-fnake s v 
Oyl, which will even penetrate the Pores of Glafs when warm'd 
in the fun. 

, It was unfortunate, therefore, that we had not taken out the 
Fat of thofe Snakes we had kill'd forne time before, for the 
Benefit of ^o ufeful an Experiment, as well as for the Relief of 
our Fellow-Traveller. 

But lately the Seneca Rattle-Snake Root has been difcover'd 
in this Country, which being infuf'd in Wine, and drank Morn- 
ing and Evening, has in Several Inftances had a very happy 
Effect upon the Gout, and enabled Cripples to throw away their 
Crutches and walk feveral Miles, and, what is Stranger Still, it 
takes away the Pain in half an hour. 

Nor was the Gout the only Difeafe amongft us that was hard 
to cure. We had a man in our Company who had too Vora- 
cious a Stomach for a Woodfman. He ate as much as any 
other two, but all he Swallow'd ftuck by him till it was carry'd 
off by Strong Purge. Without this Afliffance, often repeated, 
his Belly and Bowels wou'd fwell to fo enormous a Bulk that he 
could hardly breathe, efpecially when he lay down, juft as if he 
had had an Afthma; tho', notwithftanding this oddnefs of confti- 
tution, he was a very Strong, lively Fellow, and uf'd abundance 
of Violent Exercife, by which 'twas wonderfull the Periffaltick 
Motion was not more Vigorously promoted. 

We gave this poor Man Several Purges, which only eaf'd Him 
for the prcfent, and the next day he wou'd grow as burly as ever. 
At laft we gave Him a Moderate Dofe of ippocoacanah, in 
Broth made very Salt, which turn'd all its Operation down- 
wards. This had fo happy an EffecT: that, from that day forward 
to the End of our Journey, all his Complaint ccaf'd, and the 
paflages continued unobftrucled. 

140 The Rijiory of the 

1729 The Rain continued moft of the Day and Some part of the 

Oct. Night, which incommoded us much in our Dirty Camp, and 

~^~^^ made the men think of Nothing but Eating, even at the time 

when nobody cou'd Stir out to make provifion for it. 

29 Tho' we were flattered in the morning with the ufual Tokens 

of a fair Day, yet they all blew over, and it rain'd hard before 

we cou'd make ready for our Departure. 

This was ftill in favour of our Podagrous Friend, whofe 
Lamenefs was now grown better, and the Inflammation fallen. 
Nor did it leem to need above one day more to reduce it to its 
Natural Proportion, and make it fit for the Boot; And effect- 
ually The Rain procur'd this Benefit for him, and gave him 
particular Reafon to believe his Stars propitious. 

Notwithstanding the falling Weather, our Hunters fally'd out 
in the afternoon, and drove the Woods in a Ring, which was 
thus performed. From the circumference of a large Circle they 
all march't inwards and drove the Game towards the center. 
By this means they (hot a Brace of fat Bears, which came very 
feafonablv, becaufe we had made clean Work in the Mornino- 
and were in Danger of dining with St. Anthony, or his Grace 
Duke Humphry. 

But in this Expedition the unhappy man who had loft himfelf 
once before, Straggled again fo far in Purfuit of a Deer, that he 
was hurry'd a fecond time quite out of his knowledge. And 
Night coming on before he cou'd recover the Camp, he was 
obliged to lie down, without any of the Comforts of Fire, Food 
or covering ; Nor would his Fears fuffer him to Sleep very Sound, 
becaufe, to his great diftuibance, the Wolves howl'd all that 
Night, and the Pantheis fcream'd moft frightfully. 

In the Evening a brifk North-Wcfter fwept all the Clouds 
from the Sk) , and expof 'd the mountains as well as the Stars to 
our Profpect. 

That which was the moft lofty to the Southward, and which 

Dividing Line. 141 

we call'd the Lover's Leap, fome of our Indian Traders fondly i-?g 
fancy'd was the Kiawan mountain, which they had formerly Oft. 
' feen from the country of the Cherokees. v, ^v 

They were the more pofitive by reafon of the prodigious Pre- 
cipice that remarkably diftinguifhed the Weft End of it. 

We feem'd however not to be far enough South for that, tho' 
'tis not improbable but a few miles farther the Courfe of our 
Line might carry us to the mod Northerly Towns of the Che- 

What makes this the more credible, is the North Weft Courfe, 
that our Traders take from the Catawbas for fome hundred 
miles together, when they cany Goods that round-about way to " 
the Cherokees. 

It was a great Pity that the want of Bread, and the Weaknefs 
of our Horfes, hinder'd us from making the Difcovery. Tho' 
the great Service of fuch an Excurfion might have been to the 
Country wou'd certainly have made the attempt not only pardon- 
able, but much to be commended. 

Our Traders are now at the vafr. Charge and Fatigue of tra- 
veiling above five hundred miles for the Benefit of that traflique 
which hardly quits coil. Wou'd it not then be worth the 
AfTembly's while to be at fome charge to find a Shorter cut to 
carry on fo profitable a Trade, with more advantage, and lefs 
hazard and Trouble, than they do at prefent ? For I am pcr- 
fuaded it will not then be half the Diftance that our Traders 
make it now, nor half fo far as Georgia lies from the Northern 
Clans of that Nation. 

Such a Difcovery would certainly prove an unfpeakable Ad- 
vantage to this Colony, by facilitating a Trade with fo confider- 
able a nation of Indians, which have 62 Towns, and more than 
4000 Fighting Men. Our Traders at that rate would be able 
to underfell thofe fent from the other Colonies fo much, that tho 
Indians mult have reafon to deal with them preferable to all other*. 

142 The Hi/tory of the 

I72Q Of latc tiie ncw colon > r of Georgia has made an a£t obliging us 
Ocl:. to 0-0 4.00 miles to take out a Licenfc to traffick with thefe 

to » 

""""V™""' Cherokces, tho' many of their Towns ly out of their Bounds, 
and we had carry'd on this Trade 80 years before that Colony 
was thought of. 
->o In the Morning early the man who had gone aftray the day 
before found his way to the Camp, by the Sound of the Bells 
that were upon the Horfes' Necks. 

At nine a'clock we began our March back towards the rifing 
Sun ; for tho' we had finifht the Line, yet we had not yet near 
finifht our Fatigue. We had after all 200 good miles at leafl 
■ to our feveral Habitations, and the Horfes were brought fo low, 
that we were oblig'd to travel on foot great part of the way, and 
that in our Boots, too, to fave our Legs from being torn to 
pieces by the Bufhes and Briars. Had we not done this, we 
muft have left all our Horfes behind, which cou'd now hardly 
drag their Legs after them, and with all the favour we cou'd 
fhow the poor Animals, we were forc'd to fet Seven of them 
free, not far from the foot of the Mountains. 

Four men were defpatcht early to clear the Road, that our 
Lame Commillioner's leg might be in lefs danger of being bruif'd, 
and that the Baggage Horfes might travel with lefs difficulty and 
more expedition. 

As we pan; along, by favour of a Serene Sky, we had {till, 
from every Eminence, a perfect view of the Mountains, as well 
to the North as to the South. We could not forbear now and 
then facing about to furvey them, as if unwilling to part with a 
Profpect, which at the fame time, like fome Rake's, was very 
wild and very Agreeable. 

We encourag'd the Horfes to exert the little Strength they 
had, and being light, they made a fhift to jog on about Eleven 
Miles. We Encampt on Crooked Creek, near a Thicket of 
Canes. In the front of our Camp rofe a very beautiful Hill, 

Dividing Line. 143 

that bounded our View at about a Mile's Diftance, and all the 1729 
Intermediate (pace was cover'd with green canes. Tho', to our Oct. 
Sorrow, Fire-wood was Scarce, which was now the harder upon N "~~ 
us, becaufe a north-wefter blew very cold from the Mountains. 

The Indian kill'd a {lately, fat Buck, & we pickt his Bones as 
clean as a fcorc of Turky-Buzzards cou'd have clone. 

By the advantage of a clear night, we made tryal once more 
of the Variation, and found it much the fame as formerly. 

This being his Majefty's Birth-Day, we drank all the Loyal 
Healths in excellent Water, not for the fake of the drink, (like 
many of our fellow fubjecls,) but purely for the Sake of the 
Toaft. And becaufe all Public Mirth fhou'd be a little noify, 
we fir'd feveral volleys of Canes, inftead of Guns, which gave a 
loud report. 

We threw them into the Fire, where the Air cnclofcd be- 
twixt the Joints of the Canes, being expanded by the violent 
Heat, burft its narrow Bounds with a confiderable explofion ! 

In the Evening one of the men knockt down an Opoflum, 
which is a harmlefs little Beaft, that will feldom go out of your 
way, and if you take hold of it, it will only grin, and hardly ever 
bite. The Flefh was well tailed and Tender, approaching near- 
eft to Pig, which it alio refembles in Bignefs. The colour of 
its Fur was a Goofe Gray, with a Swine's Snout, and a Tail like 
a Rat, but at leaft a foot long. By twifting this Tail about the 
arm of a 'Free, it will hang with all its weight, and fwing to an)' 
thing it wants to take hold of. 

It has five Claws on the fore Feet of equal length, but the 
hinder feet have only Four claws, and a fort of Thumb Hand- 
ing offat a proper Diftance. 

Their Feet being thus form'd, qualify them for climbing up 
Trees to catch little Birds, which they are very fond of. 

But the greateft Particularity of this creature, and which dif- 
tinguifhes it from moft others that we are acquainted with, is 

144 *Ebe Hiflory of the 

1720 the False Belly of the Female, into which her Young re- 
061. treat in time of Danger. She can draw the Slit, which is the 
"""^ Inlet into this Pouch, fo clofe, that you muft look narrowly to 
find it, efpecially if fbc happen to be a Virgin. 

Within the Falfe Belly may be ken feven or eight Teats, on 
which the voting Ones v q;row from their fir ft Formation till thev 
are big enough to fall off, like ripe Fruit from a "Free. This is 
fo odd a method of Generation, that I mould net have believed 
it without the Tcftimony of mine own Eyes. Befides a know- 
in? and credible Peifon has affur'd me he has more than once 
obferv'd the Embryo Poffums growing to the Teat before they 
were complcatly Shaped, and afterwards watcht their daily 
growth till they were big enough for Birth. And all this he 
could the more eafiiv pry into, becaufe the Damm was fo per- 
fectly gentle and harmlcfs, that he could handle her juft as he 

I cou'd hardly pcrfuade myfelf to publiih a thing fo contrary 
to the Courfe that Nature takes in the Production of other 
Animals, unlcfs it were a Matter Commonly believ'd in all 
Countries where that Creature is produe'd, and has been otten 
obferved by Perfons of undoubted credit and underftanding. 

They fay that the Leather-winged Bats produce their Young 
in the fame uncommon Manner. And that young Sharks at 
Sea, and Young Vipers afhoar, run down the Throats of their 
Damms when the)- are clofely purfued. 

The frequent croihng of Crooked Creek, and mounting the 
Steep Banks of it, gave the finifhing ftroke to the foundering of 
our Horfes : and no lefs than than two of them made a full ftop 
here, and would not advance a foot farther, either by fair means 
or foul. 

We had a Dreamer of Dreams amongft us, who warned rac 
in the Morning to take care of myfelf, or I fhou'd infallibly fall 
into the Creek ; I thank'd him kindly, and ufed what Caution I 

Dividing Line. 145 

cou'd, but was not able it feems to avoid my Deftiny, for my 1720 
Horfe made a falfe ftep and laid me down at my full Length in Oct. 
the water. Y ~^~ 

This was enough to bring dreaming into credit, and I think it 
much for the Honour of our expedition, that it was grac'd not 
only with Priest but alfo with a Prophet. 

We were fo perplext with this Serpentine Creek, as well as 
in Pafling the Branches of the Irvin, (which were fwell'd fince 
we faw them before,) that we could reach but 5 miles this whole 
day. In the Evening We pitched our Tent near Miry creek, 
(tho' an uncomfortable place to lodge in) purely for the advan- 
tage of the Canes. 

Our Hunters killed a large Doe and two Bears, which made 
all other misfortunes eafy. Certainly no Tartar ever lov'd 
Horfe-ilem, or Hottentot Guts and Garbage, better than Woodf- 
men do Bear. The truth of it is, it may be proper food perhaps 
for fuch as Work or Ride it off, but, with our Chaplain's Leave, 
who lov'd it much, ] think it not a very proper dyet for faints, 
becaufe 'tis apt to make them a little too rampant. 

And now, for the good of mankind, and for the better Peopling 
an Infant colony, which has no want but that of Inhabitants, I 
will venture to publifh a Secret of Importance, which our Indian 
difclof'd to me. I alkt him the reafon why few or none of his 
Countrywomen were barren ? To which curious Oueftion he 
anfwered, with a Broad grin upon his Face, they had an infalli- 
ble Secret for that. Upon my being importunate to know 
what the fecret might be, he informed me that, if any Indian 
woman did not prove with child at a decent time atter Marriage, 
the Huiband, to fave his Reputation with the women, forthwith 
entered into a Bear-dyet for Six Weeks, which in that time 
makes him fo vigorous that he grows exceedingly impertinent to 
his poor wife and 'tis great odds but he makes her a mother in 

Nine Months. 


1 46 The Hifiory of the 

1729 And thus much I am able to fay, befides, for the Reputation 
Oct. of the Bear Dyct, that all the Marryed men of our Company 
""^ woe joyful lathers within forty weeks after they got Home, 
and moll; of the Single men had children fworn to them within 
the fame time, our chaplain always excepted, who, with much 
ado, made a Ihift to caft out that importunate kind of Devil, by- 
Dint of Failing and Prayer. 
Nov. 1 By the negligence of one of the Men in not hobbling his 
Horfe, he ftraggled fo far that he could not be found. This 
ftopt us all the Morning long; Yet, becaufe our Time fhouid 
not be entirely loft, we endeavoured to obferve the Latitude at 
twelve a clock. Though our Obfervation was not perfect, by 
reafon the Wind blew a little too frefh, however, by Such a One 
as we cou'd make, we found ourfclves in 36 20' only. 

Notwithftanding our being thus delay'd, and the unevenefs 
of the Ground, over which we were oblig'd to walk, (for mofi 
of us ferv'd now in the Infantry,) we travell'd no lefs than 6 
miles, Tho' as merciiul as we were to our poor Beafts, another 
of 'em tired by the way, ec was left behind for the Wolves Sc 
Panthers to feail upon. 

As we marcht along, we had the fortune to kill a Brace of 
Bucks, as many Bears, and one wild Turkey. But this was 
carrying our Sport to wantonnefs, becaufe we butchered more 
than we were able to tranlport. We ordered the Deer to be 
quarter'd and divided among the Horfes for the lighter Carriage, 
and recommended the Bears to our dayly attendants, the Turkey- 

We always chofe to carry Venifon along with us rather than 
Bear, not only becaufe it was lefs cumberfome, but likewile be- 
caufe the People cou'd cat it without Bread, which was now 
almoft fpent. Whereas the other, being richer food, lay too 
heavy upon the ftomach, [unlcfs it were lightened by fomethino- 
farinaceous. This is what I thought proper to remarque, for the 

Dividing Line. 147 

fcrvice of all thofe whofe Bufinefs or Diverfion (hall oblige them 172.Q 
to live any time in the Woods. Nov. 

And becaufc I am perfuaded that very ufefull Matters may be ^* v 
found out by Searching this great Wildcrnefs, efpecially the 
upper parts of it about the Mountains, I conceive it will help to 
engage able men in that good work, if I recommend a whole- 
fome kind of Food, of very (mail Weight and very great Nour- 
iihment, that will fecure them from Starving, in cafe they fhou'd 
be fo unlucky as to meet with no Game. The Chief difcour- 
agement at prefeut from penetrating far into the Woods is the 
trouble of carrying a Load of Provifions. I rauft own Famine 
is a frightful Monfler, and for that reafon to be guarded againft 
as well as we can. But the common precautions againft it, arc 
fo burthenfome, that People can't tarrv long out, and go far 
enough from home, to make anv effectual Difcovery. 

The Portable Provifions I would furnifh our Forefters withal 
are Glue-Broth and rockahomini : one contains the EfTence of 
Bread, the other of Meat. 

The beir way of making Glue-Broth is after the following 
method : Take a Leg of Beef, Veal, Venifon, or anv other 
Young Meat, becaufe Old Meat will not fo eafily Jelly. Pare 
off all the fat, in which there is no Nutriment, and of the Lean 
make a very ftrong Broth, after the ufual Manner, by boiling 
the meat to Rags till all the Goodnefs be-out. After Skimming 
off what fat remains, pour the Broth into a wide Stew-Pan, well 
tinn'd, £c let it fimmer over a gentle, even Fire, till it come to a 
thick Jelly. Then take it off and fet it over Boiling Water, 
which is an Evener Heat, and not fo apt to burn the Broth to 
the Veffel. Over that let it evaporate, ftirring it very often till 
it be redue'd, when cold, into a Solid Subitance like Glue. 
Then cut it into fmall Pieces, laying them Single in the Cold, 
that they may dry the Sooner. When the Pieces are perfectly 

148 The Hifwry of the 

1729 clry, put them into a Cannifter, and they will be good, if kept Dry, 
Nov. a whole Eaft India Voyage. 

' Y This Glue is To Strong, that two or three Drams, difTolv'd in 

boiling Water with a little Salt, will make half a pint of good 
Broth, & if you fhou'd be faint with falling or Fatigue, let a 
fmall piece of this Glue melt in your Mouth, and you will find 
yourfelf furprifingly refrefhed. 

One Pound of this cookery wou'd keep a man in good heart 
above a Month, and is not only Nourifhing, but likewife very 
wholcfome. Particularly it is good againfl Fluxes, which Woodf- 
men are very liable to, by lying too near the moift ground, and 
guzzling too much cold Water. But as it will be only uPd 
now and then, in times of Scarcity, when Game is wanting, two 
Pounds of it will be enough for a Journey of Six Months. 

But this Broth will be ftill more heartening, if you thicken 
every mefs with half a Spoonful of Rockahominy, which is no- 
thing but Indian Corn parched without burning, and reduced to 
Powder. The Fire drives out all the Watery Parts of the Corn, 
leaving the Strength of it behind, and this being very dry, be- 
comes much lighter for carriage and lefs liable to be Spoilt by 
the Moift Air. 

Thus half a Dozen Pounds of this Sprightful Bread will fuf- 
tain a Man for as many Months, provided he hufband it well, 
and always Sparc it when he meets with Venifon, which, as I 
faid before, may be very Safely eaten without any Bread at all. 

By what I have faid, a Man needs not encumber himfelf with 
more than 8 or 10 Pounds of Provifions, tho' he continue half 
a year in the Woods. 

Thefe and his Gun will fupport him very well during that time, 
without the lcaft danger of keeping one Single Faft. And tho' 
fome of his days may be what the French call Jours maigres^ yet 
there will happen no more of thofe than will be neceilary for his 
health, and to carry off the Exceffes of the Days of Plenty, 

Dividing Line. 149 

when our Travellers will be apt to indulge their Lawlefs Appe- 17.20 
tites too much. Nov. 

The Heavens fiowned this Morning;, and threaten'd abund- ^""^ 

ance of Rain, but our Zeal for returning made us defy the 

Weather, and decamp a little before Noon. Yet we had not 
advanct two Miles, before a Soaking Shower made us glad to 
pitch our Tent as faft as we could. We chofe for that purpofe 
a rifing Ground, half a mile to the Eaft of Matrimony 
Creek. This was the fir ft and only time we were caught in 
the Rain, during the whole Expedition. It uf'd before to be {~o 
civil as to fall in the night, after we were fafe in our Quarters, 
and had trencht ourfelves in ; or elfe it came upon us on Sun- 
days, when it was no Interruption to our Progrefs, nor any In- 
convenience to our Perfons. 

We had, however, been fo lucky in this Particular before, that 
we had abundant Reafon to take our prefent foaking patientlv, 
'and the Misfortune was the lefs, becaufe we had taken the Pre- 
caution to keep all our Baggage and Bedding perfectly dry. 

This Rain was enliven'd'with very loud Thunder, which was 
echo'd back by the Hills in the Neighbourhood in a frightful 
Manner. There is fomething in the Woods that makes the 
Sound of this Aieteor more awfull, and the Violence of the 
Lightening more Vifible. The Trees are frequently Shiver'd 
quite down to the Root, and fometimes perfectly twifted. But 
of all the Effects of Lightening that ever I heard of, the moft 
amazing happen'd in this country, in the Year 1736. 1 

In the Summer of that year a Surgeon of a Ship, whofe Name 
was Davis, came afhoar at York to vifit a Patient. He was no 
fooner got into the Houfe, but it began to rain with many terri- 
ble Claps of Thunder. When it was almoft dark there came a 
dreadful Flafh of Lightning, which Struck the Surgeon dead as 

*See Note, ar.:e, Page x. 

150 The Hijiory of the 

1 720 he was walking about the Room, but hurt no other Perfon, tho' 
Nov. feveral were near him. At the fame time it made a large Hole 
"""^ — ' in the Trunk of a Pine Tree, which grew about Ten Feet from 
the Window. But what was mo ft furprifing in this Difafter 
was, that on the Breaft of the unfortunate man that was kill'd 
was the Figure of a Pine Tree, as exactly delineated as any 
Limner in the World could draw it, nay, the Refemblance went 
fo far as to rcprcfent the coulour of the Pine, as well as the 
Figure. The Lightning muft probably have paffed thro' the 
the Tree fir ft before it ft ruck the Man, and by that means have 
printed the Icon of it on his breaft. 

But whatever may have been the caufe, the Effect was cer- 
tain and can be attefted by a Cloud of Witnefles who had the 
curiofity to go and fee this Wonderful Phenomenon. 

The worft of it was, we were forced to Encamp in a barren 
place, where there was hardly a blade of Grafs to be feen, Even 
the wild Rofcmary failed us here, which gave us but too juft 
apprehenfions that we ihould not only be oblig'd to trudge all 
the way home on foot, but alfo to lug our Baggage at our Backs 
into the Bargain. 

Thus we learnt by our own Experience, that Horfes are very 
improper animals to ufe in a long Ramble into the Woods, and 
the better they have been ufed to be fed, they are ftill the worfe. 
Such will fall away a great deal fafter, and fail much fooner, 
than thofe which are wont to be at their own keeping. Befides, 
Horfes that have been accuftom'd to a Plane and Champaign 
Country will founder prefently, when they come to clamber up 
Hills, and batter their Hoofs againft continal Rocks. 

We need Welfti Runts, and Highland Galloways to climb 
our Mountains withal ; they are uf'd to Precipices, and will bite 
as clofe as Banftead Down Sheep. But I ihould much rather 
recommend Mules, if we had them, for thefe long and painful 
Expeditions ; tho' till they can be bred, certainly Afies are the 

Dividing Line. i c \ 

fitteft Beaifs of Burthen for the Mountains. The are fure- 
footed, patient under the heavieft Fatigue, and will fubfift upon Nov. 
Mofs, or Browfing on Shrubs all the Winter. One of them "— -v— 
will carry the NeceiTary Luggage of four Men, without any Dif- 
ficulty, and upon a Pinch will take a Quarter of Bear or Veniibn 
upon their Backs into the Bargain. 

Thus, when the Men are light and difengaged from every 
thing but their Guns, they may go the whole Journey on foot 
with pleafure. And tho' my Dear Countrymen have lb Treat a 
Paffion for riding, that they will often walk two miles to catch a 
Horfe, in Order to ride One, yet, if they'll pleafe to take my 
Word for't, when they go into the Woods upon Difcoverv, I 
would advife them by all Means to march a-foot, for they will 
then be deliver 'd from the great Care and Concern for their 
Horfes, which takes up too large a portion of their time. 

Over Night we are now at the trouble of hobbling them out, 
and often of leading them a mile or two to a convenient place for 
Forrage, and then in the morning we are fome Hours in finding 
them again, becaufe they are apt to ftray a great way from the 
place where they were turn'd out. Now and then, too, they 
are loft for a whole day together, and are frequently fo weak and 
jaded, that the Company muft ly ftill Several days, near fome 
Meadow, or High-land Pond, to recruit them. All thefe delays 
retard their Progrefs intolerably ; whereas, if they had onlv a 
few AlTes, they wou'd abide clofe to the Camp, and find Suffi- 
cient food every where, and in all Seafons of the Year. Men 
wou'd then be able to travel Safely over Hills and Dales, nor 
wou'd the Steepeft Mountains obftrucl their Prosrefs. 

They might alio fearch more narrowly for Alines and other 
Productions of Nature, without being confin'd to level grounds, 
in Compliment to the jades they ride on. And one may fore- 
tell, without the Spirit of Divination, that fo long as Woodfmen 
continue to range on Horfe-back, we fhall be Strangers to our 

1 52 The Bipryofthe 

1729 own Country, and a few or no valuable Difcoveries will ever be 

Nov. made. 

* ' The French Couriers de fiois, who have run from one 
one End of the Continent to the other, have performed it all on 
foot, or elfe in all probability muft have continued as ignorant as 
we are. 

Our Country has now been inhabited more than 130 years by 
the Englifh, and ftill we hardly know any thing of the Appala- 
chian Mountains, that are no where above 250 miles from the 
fea. Whereas the French, who ate later comers, have rang'd 
from Quebec Southward as far as the Mouth of Miffiffippi, in 
the bay of Mexico, and to the Weft almoft as far as California, 
which is either way above 2000 miles. 
3 A North-weft Wind having clear'd the Sky, we were now 
tempted to travel on a Sunday, for the firft time, for want of 
more plentiful Forage, though forne of the more Scrupulous 
amongft us we unwilling to do Evil, that good might come of it, 
and make our Cattle work a Good part of the Day in order to 
fill their Bellies at Night. However, the Chaplain put on his 
cafuiftical Face, and offer'd to take the fin upon Himfelf. We 
therefore confcnted to move a Sabbath Day's Journey of 3 or 4 
Miles, it appearing to be a Matter of forne neceflky. 

On the way our unmerciful Indian kill'd no lefs than two 
Brace of Deer and a large Bear. We only prim'd the Deer, 
beincr unwilling to be encumbered with their whole 
The reft we confign'd to the Wolves, which in Return feranaded 
us great part of the Night. They are very clamorous in their 
Banquets, which we know is the way forne other Brutes have, 
in the extravagance of their Jollity and Sprightlinefs, of exprefT- 
ing their thanks to Providence. 

We came to our Old camp, in Sight of the River Irvin, 
whofe Stream was Swell'd now near four feet with the Rain that 
fell the Day before. This made it impracticable for us to ford 

Dividing Line. 153 

it, nor could we guefs when the water wou'd fall enough to let 1729 
us go over. Nov. 

This put our Mathematical ProfelTbr, who fhou'd have fet a sr ~~ 
better Example, into the Vapours, fearing he fhou'd be oblig'd 
to take up his Winter Quarters in that doleful Wildernefs. 
But the reft were not affe£ted with his want of Faith, but pre- 
ferv'd a Firmnefs of Mind Superior to fuch little Adverfe Acci- 
dents. They trufted that the fame good Providence which had 
moft remarkably profper'd them hitherto, would continue his 
gdodnefs and conduct them fafe to the End of their Journey. 

However, we found plainly that travelling on the Sunday, 
contrary to our conftant Rule, had not thriven with us in the 
leaft. We were not gainers of any diftance bv r it, becaufe the 
river made us pay two days for Violating one. 

Neverthelefs, by making this Reflection, I would not be 
thought fo rigid an obferver of the Sabbath as to allow of no 
Work at all to be done, or Journeys to be taken upon it. I 
fhould not care to ly ftill and be knockt on the head, as the 
Jews w T ere heretofore by Antiochus, becaufe I believ'd it unlaw- 
ful to ftand upon my Defenfe on this good day. Nor would I 
care, like a certain New England Magiftrate, to order a Man 
to the Whipping Poft, for daring to ride for a Midwife on the 
Lord's Day. 

On the contrary, I am for doing all acts of Neceffity, Charity, 
and Self-Prefervation, upon a Sunday as well as other days of 
the Week. But, as I think our prefent March cou'd not Strictly 
be juftify'd by any of thefe Rules, it was but juft we fhould 
fuffcr a little for it. 

I never could learn that the Indians fet apart any day of the 
Week or the Year for the Service of God. They prav, as 
Philofophers eat, only when they have. a ftomach, without having 
any fet time for it. Indeed thefe Idle People have very little 
occafion for a fabbath to refrefli themfelves after hard Labour, 

!£4 The Illjlory of the 

j 72 g becaufe very few of them ever Labour at all. Like the wild 
Nov. Irifh, they would rather want than Work, and are all men of 
~~v~ v Plcafure, to whom every clay is a day of reft. 

Indeed, in their Hunting, they will take a little Pains ; but 
this being only a Diverfion, their fpirits are rather raif'd than de- 
prelT'd by it, and therefore need at moft but a Night's Sleep to 

recruit them. 
4 By fome Stakes we had driven into the River yefrerday, we 
perceiv'd the Water began to fall, but fell fo Slowly that we 
found we muff have patience a day or two longer. And be- 
caufe we were unwilling to ly altogether Idle, we fent back fome 
of the men to bring up the two Hones that tir'd the Saturday 
before. They were found near the place where we had left 
them, but fecmed too fenhble of their Liberty to come to us. 
They were found Standing indeed, but as Motionlefs as the 
Equeftrian ftatue at Charing-Cross. 

We had great reafon to apprehend more Rain by the clouds 
that drove over our Heads. The boldeft amongft us were not 
without fome Pangs of uneafinefs at fo very Sullen a Proipea. 
However, God be praif'd ! it all blew over in a few Hours. 

If much Rain had fallen, we refolv'd to make a Raft and bind 
it together with Grape Vines, to Ferry ourfelves and Baggage 
over the River. Tho\ in that Cafe, we expefted the Swiftnefs 
of the Stream wou'd have carry'd down our Raft a long way 
before we cou'd have tugg'd it to the oppofite {hoar. 

One of the Young Fellows we had fent to bring up the tired 
Horfes entertained us in the Evening with a remarkable adven- 
ture he had met with that day. 

He had ftraggled, it feems, from his Company in a mift, and 
made a cub of a year old betake itfelf to a Tree. While he 
was new-priming his piece, with intent to fetch it down, the 
Old Gentlewoman appeared, and perceiving her Heir apparent 
in Diftrefs, advane'd open-mouth'd to his relief. 

Dividing Line. 155 

The man was fo intent upon his Game, that (lie had approacht j -20 
very near him before he perceived her. But finding his Danger, Nov. 
he faced about upon the Enemy, which immediately rear'd upon ' r ~~ 
her poileriors, & put herfelf in Battle Array. 

The Man, admiring at the Bear's aiTurance, endeavour'd to 
fire upon Her, but bv the Dampnefs of the Priming, his Gun did 
not go off. He cockt it a fecond time, and had the fame mif- 
fortune. After miffing Fire twice, he had the folly to punch 
the Beaft with the muzzle of his Piece ; but mother Bruin, be- 
ing upon her Guard, feized the Weapon with her Paws, and by 
main ilrength wrenched it out of the Fellow's Plands. 

The Man being thus fairly difarm'd, thought himfelf no longer 
a Match for the Enemy, and therefore retreated as fa ft as his 
Legs could carry him. 

The brute naturally grew bolder upon the flight of her Ad- 
verfary, and purfued him with all her heavy fpeed. For fome 
time it was doubtful whether fear made one run fafter, or Fury 
the other. But after an even courfe of about 50 yards, the Man 
had the Milhap to Stumble over a Stump, and fell down at his 
full Length. He now wou'd have fold his Life a Penny-worth; 
but the Bear, apprehending there might be fome Trick in the 
Fall, inftantly halted, and lookt with much attention on her 
Proftrate Foe. 

In the mean while, the Man had with great prefence of Mind 
refolved to make the Bear believe he was dead, by lying Breath- 
lefs on the Ground, in Hopes that the Beaft would be too 
generous to kill him over again. To carry on the Farce, he 
acted the Corpfe for fome time without dareing to raife his head, 
to fee how near the Monfter was to him. But in about two 
Minutes, to his unfpcakable Comfort, he was raif'd from the 
Dead by the Barking of a Dog, belonging to one of his com- 
panions, who came Scafonably to his Refcue, and drove the Bear 

156 The Hijiory of the 

1729 from purfuing the Man to take care of her Cub, which (he fear'd 
Nov. m io-ht now fall into a fecond DiPcrefs. 

*""~ > ' We Judo-'d the Waters were afluag'd this morning to make 
the River fordable. Therefore about Ten we try'd the Experi- 
ment, and every Body got over Safe, except one man, whofe 
Horfe Slipt from a Rock as he forded over, and threw him into 
the River. But being able to fwirn, he was not Carry'd down 
the Stream very far before he recover'd the North Shore. 

At the Diflance of about 6 miles we pafft Cascade Creek., 
and 3 Miles farther we came upon the Banks of the Dan, 
which we croft with much Difficulty, by reafon the Water was 
rifen much higher than when we forded it before. 

Here the fame unlucky Perfon happen'd to be duckt a Second 
time, and was a Second time Sav'd by Swimming. My own 
Horfe too plunged in fuch a Manner that his Head was more 
than once under Water, but with much ado recover'd his Feet, 
tho' he made fo low an obeifance, that the water ran fairly over 
my Saddle. 

We continued our march as far as Lowland Creek, where 
we took up our Lodging, for the benefit of the Canes and 
Winter Grafs that grew upon the rich Grounds thereabouts. 
On our way thither we had the Misfortune to drop another 
Horfe, though he carry'd nothing the whole day but his Saddle. 
We fhowed the fame favour to moft of our Horfes, for fear, if 
we did not do it, we mould in a little time be turned into Beafts 
of Burthen ourfclves. 

Cuftom had now made travelling on foot fo familiar, that we 
were able to walk ten Miles with Pleafure. This we cou'd do 
in our Boots, notwithstanding our way lay over rough Woods 
and uneven Grounds. 

Our learning to walk in heavy Boots was the fame advantage 
to us that learning to Dance High Dances in Wooden Shoes is 

Dividing Li?ie. 157 

to the French, it made us moir. exceedingly Nimble without 1729 
them. Nov - 

The Indians, who have no way of travelling but on the Hoof, 
make nothing of going 25 miles a day, and carrying their little 
NecerTaries at their backs, and Sometimes a Stout Pack of Skins 
into the Bargain. And very often they laugh at the Englifh, 
who can't Stir to Next Neighbour without a Horfe, and fay that 
2 Legs are too much for fuch lazy people, who cannot vifit their 
next neighbour without fix. 

For their Parts, they were utter Strangers to all our Beafts of 
Burthen or Carriage, before the Slothful Europeans came amongft 
them. They had on no part of the American Continent, or in 
any of the Iflands, either Horfes or Afles, Camels, Dromedaries 
or Elephants, to eafe the Legs of the Original Inhabitants, or to 
lighten their Labour. 

Indeed, in South America, and particularly in Chili, they have 
a ufeful animal call'd "paco." This creature refembles a Sheep 
pretty much ; only in the Length of the Neck, and figure of the 
Head, it is more like a Camel. It is very near as high as the 
afs, and the Indians there make ufe of it for carrying moderate 

The Fleece that grows upon it is very Valuable for the fine- 
nefs, length and Glomnefs of the Wool. It has one remarka- 
ble Singularity, that the Hoofs of its fore-feet have three Clefts, 
and thofe behind no more than one. The Flefh of this Animal 
is fomething drier than our Mutton, but altogether as well tailed. 
When it is Angrv, it has no way of refenting its wrongs, but 
by fpitting in the Face of thofe that provoke it : and if the Spawl 
happen to light on the bare Skin of any Perlbn, it firft creates 
an Itching, and afterwards a Scab, if no Remedy be applied. 
The way to manage thefe paces, and make them tradable, is, to 
bore a hole in their ears, through which they put a Rope, and 
then guide them juft as they pleafe. 

158 The Hi/lory of the 

I7 20 In Chili-, they wear a beautiful kind of Stuff, with thread made 
Nov. of this Creature's Wool, which has a Glofs Superior to any 
~"~^ ' Camlet, and is fold very dear in that country. 

6 The Difficulty of finding the Horfes among the tall Canes 
made it late before we decampt. We traverfed very hilly 
Grounds, but to make amends it was pretty clear of Underwood. 
We avoided crofling the Dan twice by taking a Compafs round 
the bent of it. There was no pafling by the angle of the River 
without halting a moment to entertain our Eyes again with that 
Charming Profpeit. When that pleafure was over we proceeded 
to Sable Creek, and encamped a little to the Eaft of it. 

The River thereabouts had a charming effect, its Banks being 
adorn'd with green canes, fixtecn feet high, which make a Spring 
all the year, as well as plenty of Forage all the Winter. 

One of the Men wounded an Old Buck, that was gray with 
years, and feem'd by the Reverend Marks he bore upon him, to 
confirm the current Opinion of that animal's Longevity. The 
Smart of his Wounds made him not only turn upon the Dogs, 
but likewife purfue them to fome Diftance with great Fury. 

However he got away at lail, though by the blood that iflued 
from his Wound he could not run far before he fell, and without 
doubt made a comfortable repaft for the wolves. However 
the Indian had better Fortune, and fupply'd us with a fat Doe, 
and a young Bear two years old. At that Age they are in their 
Prime, and, if they be fat withal, they are a Morfel for a Car- 

All the Land we Travell'd over this day, and the day before, 
that is to fay from the river Irvin to Sable Creek, is exceedingly 
rich, both on the Virginia Side of the Line, and that of Carolina. 
Befides whole Forefts of Canes, that adorn the Banks of the 
River and Creeks thereabouts, the fertility of the Soil throws 
out fuch a Quantity of Winter Grafs, that Horfes and Cattle 
might keep themfelves in Heart all the cold Seafon without the 

Dividi?ig Line. i ^ 

help of any Fodder. Nor have the low Grounds only this ad- 7720 
vantage, but likewife the Higher Land, and particularly that Nov. 
which we call the Highland Pond, which is two miles broad, and ' v 
of a length unknown. 

I queftion not but there are 30,000 Acres at leaf!, lying Alto- 
gether, as fertile as the Lands were laid to be about Babylon, 
which yielded, if Herodotus tells us right, an Increafe of no lefs 
than 2 or 300 for one. But this hath the Advantage of being a 
higher, and confequently a much healthier, Situation than that. 
So that a Colony of 1000 families might, with the help o( Mode- 
rate Induftry, pafs their time very happily there. 

Befides grazing and Tillage, which would abundantly com- 
penfate their Labour, they might plant Vineyards upon the Hills, 
in which Situation the richer! Wines are always produe'd. 

They might alfo propagate white Mulberry Trees, which 
thrive exceedingly in this climate, in order to the feeding of filk- 
worms, and making of Raw Silk. 

They might too produce Hemp, Flax and Cotton, in what 
quantity they pleaf'd, not only for their own ufc, but likewife ten- 
Sale. Then they might raife very plentiful Orchards, of both 
Peaches and Apples, which contribute as much as any Fruit to 
the Luxury of Life. There is no Soil or Climate will yield 
better Rice than this, which is a Grain of prodigious Increafe, 
and of very wholefome Nourifhment. In fhort every thing will 
grow plentifully here to fupply either the Wants or Wantonnefs 
of Man. 

Nor can I fo much as wilh that the more tender Vegetables 
might grow here, fuch as Orange, Lemon, and Olive Trees, 
becaufe then we fhou'd lofe the much greater benefit of the brifk 
North-Wei! Winds, which purge the Air, and fweep away all 
the Malignair Fevers, which hover over countries that are 
always warm. 

The Soil wou'd alfo want the advantages of Froft, and Snow, 

160 The Hi/lory of the 

1729 which by their Nitrous Particles contribute not a little to its 

Nov. Fertility. Bcfides the Inhabitants wou'd be depriv'd of the 

Variety and Sweet Viciflitude of the Seafon, which is much 

more delightful than one dull and Conftant Succeffion of Warm 

Weather, diverfify'd only by Rain and Sun Shine. 

There is alfo another convenience, that happens to this coun- 
try by cold weather — it defhoys a great Number of Snakes, 
and other Venomous Reptiles, and troublefome Infedts, or at 
leaft lays them to Sleep for Several Months, which otherwife 
would annoy us the whole year round, & multiply beyond all 

Though Oranges and Lemons are defirable Fruits, and Ufe- 
full enough in many Cafes, yet, when the Want of them is 
Supply'd by others more ufeful, we have no caufe to complain. 

There is no climate that produces every thing, fince the De- 
luge Wrencht the Poles of the World out of their Place, nor is 
it fit it fhou'd be fo, becaufe it is the Mutual Supply one countrv 
receives from another, which creates a mutual Traffic and Inter- 
courfe amongft men. And in Truth, were it not for the corre- 
fpondence, in order to make up each other's Wants, the Wars 
betwixt Bordering Nations, like thofe of the Indians and other 
barbarous People, wou'd be perpetual and irreconcileable. 

As to Olive Trees, I know by Experience they will never 
ftand the Sharpnels of our Winters, but their Place may be 
Supply'd by the Plant call'd Seflamun, which yields an infinite 
quantity of large Seed, from whence a Sweet Oyl is preft, that 
is very wholefome and in ufc amongft the People of Lcller Afia. 
Likewife it is uf'd in Egypt, preferably to oyl olive, being not fo 
apt to make thofe that cat it Conftantly break out into Scabs as 
they do in many parts of Italy. This would grow very kindly 
here, and has already been planted with good Succefs in North 
Carolina, by way of Experiment. 
7 After croffing the Dan, we made a march of 8 miles, over 

Dividing Line. 1 6 1 

Hills and Dales as far as the next Ford of that River. And now 1720. 
we were bv Practice become fuch very able Footmen, that we Nov. 
eafily outwalk* our Horfes, and cou'd have marcht much farther, v v ' 
had it not been in pity to their Weaknefs. Befides here was 
plenty of Canes, which was reafon enough to make us Shorten 
our Journey. Our Gunners did great Execution as they went 
along, killing no lets than two Brace of Deer, and as many Wild 

Though Practice will foon make a man of tolerable Vigour 
an able Footman, yet, as a Help to bear Fatigue I uf'd to chew 
a Root of Ginfeng as I Walk't along. This kept up my Spirits, 
and made me trip away as nimbly in my half Jack-Boots as 
younger men cou'd in their Shoes. This Plant is in high Efteem 
in China, where it fells for its Weight in Silver. Indeed it does 
not grow there, but in the Mountains of Tartary, to which 
Place the emperor of China Sends 10,000 Men every Year on 
purpofe to gather it. But it grows fo fcattering there, that even 
fo many hands can bring home "no great Quantity. Indeed it is 
a Vegetable of fo many vertues, that Providence has planted it 
very thin in every Country that has the happinefs to produce it. 
Nor indeed is Mankind worthy of fo great a Bleffing, fince 
Health and long Life are commonly Abuf'd to ill Purpofes. 
This noble Plant grows likevvife at the Cape of Good Hope, 
where it is Call'd kanna, and is in wonderful Efteem among the 
Hottentots. It grows alfo on the northern continent of America, 
near the Mountains, but as Sparingly as Truth & Public Spirit. 
It anfwers exactly both to the Figure and vertues of that which 
grows in Tartary, fo that there can be no doubt of its being the 

Its vertues are, that it gives an uncommon Warmth and 

Vigour to the Blood, and frifks the Spirits, beyond any other 

Cordial. It cheats the Heart even of a Man that has a bad 

Wife, and makes him look down with great Compofure on the 


1 62 The Hiftory of the 

I72Q cr °ft~ es °^ trie w orld. It promotes infenfible Perfpiration, dif- 
Nov. folves all Phlegmatick and Vifcous Humours, that arc apt to 
— ~v— ' obftruct the Narrow channels of the Nerves. It helps the 
Memory, and would quicken even Helvetian dulnefs. 'Tis 
friendly to the Lungs, much more than Scolding itfelf. It com- 
forts the Stomach, and Strengthens the Bowels, preventing all 
Colicks and Fluxes. In one Word, it will make a Man live a 
great while, and very well while he does live. And what is 
more, it will even make Old Age amiable, by rendering it lively, 
chearful, and good-humour'd. However 'tis of little vSe in the 
Feats of Love, as a great prince once found, who hearing of its 
invigorating Quality, fent as far as China for fome of it, though 
his ladys could not boaft of any Advantage thereby. 

We gave the Indian the Skins of all the Deer that he Shot 
himfelf, and the Men the Skins of what they Kill'd. And even- 
Evening after the Fires were made, they ftretcht them very tight 
upon Sticks, and dry'd them. This, by a Nocturnal Fire, ap- 
pear'd at fir ft a very odd Speclacle, every thing being dark and 
gloomy round about. After they are Dry'd in this manner they 
may be folded up without Damage, till they come to be drelT'd 
according to Art. 

The Indians drefs them with Deer's Brains, and fo do the 
Englifh here by their example. For Expedition's Sake they 
often Stretch their Skins over Smoak in order to dry them, 
which makes them fmell fo difagreeably that a Rat muft have a 
good Stomach to gnaw them in that condition ; nay, 'tis (aid, 
while that Perfume continues in a Pair of Leather Breeches, the 
Perfon that wears them will be in no Danger of that Villainous 
little infect, the French call Morpion. And now I am upon the 
fubjedt of Infects, it may not be improper to mention fomc few 
Remedies againft thofe that are moft Vexatious in this Climate. 
There are two Sorts without Doors, that are great Nuiiances 
the Tikes, and the Horl'e Flies. The Tikes are either Deer- 

Dividing Line. 163 

tikes, or thofe that annoy the Cattle. The firft kind are long, j^q 
and take a very Strong Gripe, being moft in remote Woods, Nov. 
above the Inhabitants. ■ v— "^ 

The other are round, and more gently infinuate themfelves 
into the Flefh, being in all places where Cattle are frequent. 
Both thefe Sorts are apt to be troublefome during the Warm 
Seafon, but have fuch an Averfion to Penny Royal, that they 
will attaque no Part that is rubb'd with the Juice of that fra- 
grant Vegetable. And a Strong Decoction of this is likewife 
the moft effectual Remedy againft Seed-tikes, which bury them- 
felves in your Legs, when they are fo fmall you can hardly dif- 
cern them without a Microscope. 

The Plorfe Flies are not only a great Grievance to Horfes, 
but likewife to thofe that ride them. Thefe little Vixons con- 
fine themfelves chiefly to the Woods, and are moft in moift 
Places. Tho' this Infect be no bigger than an Ordinary Fly, it 
bites very Smartly, darting its little Probofcis into the Skin the 
inftant it lights upon it. Thefe are offeniive only in the hot 
months, and in the Day time, when they are a great Nuifance 
to Travellers ; infomuch that it is no Wonder they were for- 
merly employed for one of the Plagues of Egypt. But Dittany, 
which is to be had in the Woods all the while thofe Infedts re- 
main in Vigor, is a Sure Defenfe againft them. - For this pur- 
pofe, if you ftick a Bunch of it on the Head-Stall of your 
Bridle, they will be fure to keep a refpcclful Diftance. 

Thus, in what part of the Woods foever any thing mifchiev- 
ous or troublefome is found, kind Providence is fure to provide 
a Remedy. And 'tis probably one great Reafon why God was 
pleaf'd to create thefe, and many other Vexatious Animals, that 
Men fho'd exercife their Wits and Induftry, to guard themfelves 
againft them. 

Bears' Oyl is ufed by the Indians as a General Defence, 
againft every Species of Vermin. Among the reft, they fay it 

1 64 The Iliftory of the 

1729 keeps both Bugs and Mufquetas from afTaulting their Perfons, 

Nov. which wou'd otherwifc devour Such uncleanly People. Yet 

* ' ' Bears' Greafe has no ftrong Smell, as that Plant had which the 

Egyptians formerly uf'd again ft mufquetas, refembling our palma 

Chrilti, the Juice of which fmelled fo difagreeably, that the 

Remedy was worfe than the Difeafe. 

Againft mufquetas, in Egypt, the Richer Sort uf'd to build 
lofty Towers, with Bed-chambers in the Tops of them, that 
they might reft undifturbed. 'Tis certain that thefe Infects are 
no High Fliers, becaufe their Wings are weak and their Bodies 
fo light, that if they mount never fo little, the wind blows them 
quite away from their Courfe, and they become an eafy prey to 
the Martins, Eaft India Bats, and other Birds that fly about in 
continual Oueft of them. 
8 As we had twice more to crofs the Dan over two fords, that 
lay no more than 7 miles from each other, we judg'd the Dis- 
tance wou'd not be much greater to go round the Bent of it. 
Accordingly we fent the Indian and two white Men that way, 
who came up with us in the Evening, after fetching a compafs 
of about 12 Miles. 

They told us that, about a mile from our laft Camp, they 
patted a creek fortify'd with Steep Cliffs, which therefore gain'd 
the name of Cliff Creek. Near 3 miles beyond that thev forded 
a Second Creek, on the Margin of which grew abundance of 
Tall canes and this was call'd Hix's creek, from one of the 
Difcoverers. Between thefe two creeks lies a level of exceed- 
ing rich Land, full of large Trees, and cover'd with black Mould, 
as fruitful, if we believe them, as that which is yearly overflow'd 
by the Nile. 

We who marched the nearcft way upon the Line found the 
Ground rifing and falling between the two Fords of the Dan, 
which almoft broke our own Wind, and the Hearts of our Jaded 
Palfreys. When we had palled the laft Ford, it was a Senfible 

Dividing Line. 165 

Joy to find ourfelves Safe over all the Waters that might cut off j 72Q 
our Retreat. And we had the greater Reafon to be Thankful], Now 
becaufe fo late in the Year it was very unufual to find the rivers v *"— ' 
fo fordable. 

We catcht a large Tarapin in the River, which is one kind of 
Turtle. The fleih of it is wholefome, and good for Confump- 
tive People. It lays a great Number of Eggs, not larger but 
rounder than thofe of Pigeons. Thefe are Soft, but withal fo 
tough that 'tis difficult to break them, yet are very Sweet and 
invigorating, fo that fome Wives recommend them earneftly to 
their Hufbands. 

One of the Men, by an Overftrain, had unhappily got a Run- 
ning of the Reins, for which I gave him every Morning a Little 
Sweet Gumm diffolv'd in Water, with good fuccefs. This 
gumm diftils from a large Tree, cali'd the Sweet-Gum Tree, 
very Common in Virginia, and is as healing in its Virtue as 
Balm of Gilead, or the Balfams of Tolu and of Peru. It is 
likewife a mo ft Agreeable parfume, very little inferior to Am- 

And now I have mention'd Ambergris, I hope it will not be 
thought an unprofitable digreffion, to give a faithful Account 
how it is produced, in Order to reconcile the various Opinions 
concerning it. It is now certainly found to be the Dung of the 
Sper Maceti Whale, which is at firft very black and unfavoury. 
But after having been wafht for fome Months in the Sea, and 
blanch'd in the Sun, it comes at length to be of a Gray colour, 
and from a moft offenfive Smell, contracts the fineft fragrancy in 
the World. 

Befidcs the Fragrancy of this Animal Subftance, 'tis a very 
rich and innocent Cordial, which raifes the fpirits without Stupi- 
fying them afterwards, like Opium, or intoxicating them like 
Wine. The Animal Spirits are amazingly refrefhed by this 
Cordial, without the Danger of any ill confequence, and if Huf- 

1 66 The Ilijlory of the 

jy 7 q bands were now and then to difiblve a little of it in their Broth, 
Nov. their Conforts might be the better for it, as well as themfelves. 
— ~v— ^ In the Bahama iflands (where a great Quantity is found, by 
reafon the Sperma Ceti Whales refort thither continually,) it is 
uf'd as an Antidote again ft the Venomous Fifh which abound 
thereabouts, wherewith the People are apt to Poifon them- 

We are not only oblig'd to that Whale for this rich parfume, 
but alfo for the Sper Maceti itfelf, which is the Fat of that Fifh's 
Head boil'd and purg'd from all its impuritys. What remains 
is of a balfamick and deterfive Quality, very friendly to the 
Lungs, and ufefull in many other Cafes. 

The Indian had kill'd a fat Doe in the compafs he took round 
the Elbow of the River, but was content to Prime it only, by 
reafon it was too far off to lug the whole Carcafs upon his Back. 
This, and a Brace of Wild Turkeys which our Men had Shot, 
made up all our Bill of Fare this Evening, but could only afford 
a Philofophical Meal to fo many craving Stomachs. 

The Horfes were now fo lean that any thing would gall thofe 
that carry 'd the leaft Burthen ; no wonder then if Several of 
them had fore Backs, efpecially now the Pads of the Saddles and 
Packs were prefT'd flat with long and conftant Ufe. This would 
have been another Misfortune, had we not been provided with 
an eafy Remedy for it. 

One of the Commit]! oners, believing that Such Accidents 
might happen in a far Journey, had furnifht himfelf with Plafters 
of Strong Glue fpread pretty thick. We laid on thefe, after 
making them running hot, which, Sticking faft, never fell off till 
the Sore was perfectly heal'd. In the mean time it defended 
the part fo well, that the Saddle might bear upon it without 
Danger of further Injury. 
g We reckon'd our Selves now pretty well out of the Latitude 
of Bears, to the great Grief of moil of the company. There 

Dividing Line. 167 

was Still Mart enoueh left in the Woods to keep the Bears from 

,, *7 2 9 

drawing fo near to the Inhabitants. They like not the neigh- Nov. 

bourhood of Mcrcilefs Man, till Famine compels them to it. v — -v-— 
They are all Black in this part of the World, and fo is their 
Dung, but it will make Linnen white, being tolerably good Soap, 
without any Preparation but only drying. 

Thefe Bears are of a Moderate Size, whereas within the Polar 
Circles they are white, and much larger. Thofe of the South- 
ern Parts of Mufcovy are of a Ruflet Colour, but among the 
Samoeids, as well as in Greenland and Nova Zembla, they 
are as white as the mow they converfe with, and by fome Ac- 
counts are as large as a Moderate Ox. 

The Exceflive Cold of that Climate, fets their Appetites fo 
Sharp, that they will Attack a Man without Ceremony, and 
even climb up a Ship's Side to come at him. They range about 
and are very Mifchievous all the time the Sun is above the 
Horizon, which is fomething more than Five Months ; but after 
the Sun is Set for the reft of the Year, they retire into Holes, or 
bury themfelves under the Snow, and Sleep away the Dark 
Seafon without any Suftenance at all. 'Tis pitty our Beggars 
and Pickpockets Cou'd not do the Same. 

Our Journey this day was above 12 Miles, and more than 
half the way terribly hamper'd with Bufhes. We tir'd another 
Horfe, which we were oblig'd to leave two miles fhort of where 
we Encampt, and indeed Several others were upon the Careen 
almoft every Step. Now we wanted one of thofe celebrated 
Muficians of Antiquity, who, they tell us, among many other 
Wonders of their Art, cou'd play an air which, by its Animateing 
Brifknefs wou'd make a Jaded Horfe caper and curvet much 
better than any Whip, Spur, or even than Swearing. Tho' I 
fear our poor Beafts were fo harafr that it wou'd have been be- 
yond the Skill of Orpheus himfelf fo much as to make them 
prick up their ears. 

1 68 The Hiftory of the 

1729 F° r Proof of the Marvellous Power of Mufic among the 
Nov. Ancients, fome Historians fay, that one of thofe Skilful Mailers 
* ' took upon him to make the great Alexander flart up from his 
Seat, and handie his Javelin, whether he would or not, by the 
force of a fprightly Tune, which he knew how to play to Him. 
The King ordered the man to bring his Instrument, and then 
fixing himfelf firmly in his chair, and determining not to Stir, he 
bade him to Strike up as foon as he pleaf'd. The Mufician 
obey'd, and prefently rouf'd the Hero's Spirits with fuch War- 
like Note?, that he was conftrain'd, in Spite of all his Refolution, 
to fpring up and fly to his Javelin with great martial Fury. 

We can the eafier credit thefe Prophanc Stories by what we 
find recorded in the Oracles of Truth, where we are told the 
Wonders David performed by Sweetly touching his Harp. He 
made nothing of driving the Evil Spirit out of Saul, tho' a certain 
rabbi allures us he could not do fo much by his Wife, A'Iichal, 
when flie happen'd to be in her Ayrs. 

The greateft Inftance we have of the Power of Modern 
Mufic is that which cures thofe who in Italy are bitten by the 
little Spider called the Tarantula. The whole method of which 
is perform'd in the following manner. 

In Apulia it is a common Misfortune for People to be bitten 
by the Tarantula, and moil about Taranto and Gallipoli. This 
is a gray fpider, not very large, with a narrow Streak of white 
along the Back. It is no wonder there are many of thefe Vil- 
lainous Infec-ts, becaufe, by a Ridiculous Superitition 'tis ac- 
counted great Inhumanity to kill them. They believe, it feems, 
that if the Spider come to a Violent Death, all thofe who had 
been bitten by it will certainly have a Return of their Frenzy 
every Year as long as they live. But if it dye a Natural Death, 
the Patient will have a chance to recover in two or three Years. 

The Bite of the tarantula gives no more pain than the Bite of 
a mufqueta, and makes little or no inflammation on the Part, 

Dividing Line. 169 

efpecially when the Difafter happens in April or May; but, its 17 -> r 
Venom encreafmg with the Heat of the Seafon, has more fatal Nov. 
Confequences in July and Auguft. The Perfons who are fo v ~~>— - - 
unhappy as to be bitten in thofe Warm Months, fall down on 
the Place in a few Minutes, and lye fenfelefs for a confiderable 
time, and when they come to themfelvcs feel horrible Pains, are 
very Sick at their Stomachs, and in a Short time break out into 
foul Sores; but thofc who are bitten in the Milder Months have 
much gentler Symptoms. They are longer before the Diftemper 
Shows itfelf, and then they have a fmall Diforder in their Senfes, 
are a little lick, and perhaps have fome Moderate Breakings-out. 
However, in both cafes, the Patient keeps upon the lied, not 
caring to itir, till he is rouf'd by a Tune, proper for his particu- 
lar cafe. Therefore, as foon as the Symptoms difcover them- 
felves, a Tarantula Doctor is fent for, who, after viewing care- 
fully the condition of the Perfon, firft tries one Tune and then 
another, until he is fo fortunate as to hit the Phrenetic turn of 
the Patient. No fooner does this happen but he begins to Wag 
a finger, then a Hand, and afterwards a Foot, till at laft he 
fprings up and dances Round the Room, with a Surprifing Agility, 
rolling his Eyes and looking wild the whole time. This dancing- 
Fit lafts commonly about 25 minutes, by which time he will be 
all in a Lather. Then he fits down, falls a laughing, and re- 
turns to his Senfes. So Plentiful a Perfpi ration difcharges fo 
much of the Venom as will keep off the Return of the Diftem- 
per for a whole Year. Then it will Vifit Him again, and muft 
be remov'd in the Same Merry Manner. But three dancing 
Bouts will do the Bufinefs, unlefs, peradventure, the Spider, ac- 
cording to the Vulgar Notion, has been put to a Violent Death. 
The Tunes play'd to expell this Whimncall Diforder, are of 
the Jigg-kind, and exceed not 15 in number. The Apulians 
are frequently dancing off the Effects of this Poifon, and no 
Remedy is more commonly apply'd to any other Diftemper elfe- 

170 The Hijfory of the 

I72Q w here, than thofe Sprightly Tunes are to the Bite of the Tarantula 
Nov. in that part of Italy. 

— -v—~ ^ It is remarkable that thefe Spiders have a greater Spight to the 
Natives of the Place than they have to Strangers, and Women 
are oftener bitten than Men. Tho' there may be a Reafon for 
the lait, beeaufe Women are more confin'd to the Houfe, where 
thefe Spyders keep, and their coats make them liable to Attacks 
unfeen, whereas the Men can more eafily difcover, and brufh 
them off their Legs. Nevcrthelefs, both Sexes are cur'd the 
Same way, and thereby Show the Wonderful Effects of Mufic. 

Considering how far we had walkt, and confequently how 
hungry we were, we found but Short commons when we came 
to our Quarters. One Brace of Turkeys was all the Game we 
cou'd meet with, which almoir. needed a Miracle to enable them 
to Suffice fo many Voracious Appetites. However, they juft 
made a Shift to keep Famine, and confequently Mutiny, out of 
the Camp. At Night we lodg'd upon the Banks of Buffalo 
Creek, where none of us cou'd complain of lofs of Reft, for 
having eaten too heavy and Luxurious a Supper. 
10 In a Dearth of Provisions our Chaplain pronoune'd it lawful 
to make bold with the Sabbath, and fend a Party out a-Hunting. 
They fired the Dry Leaves in a Ring of five Miles' circumfe- 
rence, which, burning inwards, drove all the Game to the Centre, 
where they were ealily killed. 

It is really a pitiful Sight to fee the extreme Diftrefs the poor 
deer are in, when they find themfelves Surrounded with this 
Circle of Fire ; they weep and Groan like a Human Creature, 
yet can't move the compalfion of thofe hard-hearted People, who 
are about to murder them. This unmerciful Sport is called 
Fire Hunting, and is much practie'd by the Indians and Fron- 
tier Inhabitants, who fometimes, in the Eagernefs of their Diver- 
sion, are Punifh't for their cruelty, and are hurt by one another 
when they Shoot acrofs at the Deer which are in the Middle. 

Dividing Line. 171 

What the Indians do now by a Circle of Fire, the ancient 
Perfinns performed formerly by a circle of Men : and the fame Nov. 
is pra&ifd at this day in Germany upon extraordinary Occa- v *~ 
fions, when any of the Princes of the Empire have a Mind to 
make a General Hunt, as they call it. At fuch times they order 
a vaft Number of People to Surround a whole Territory. Then 
Marching inwards in clofe Order, they at laft force all the Wild 
Beafts into a Narrow Compafs, that the Prince and his Company 
may have the Diverfion of Slaughtering as many as they pleafe 
with their own hands. 

Our Hunters mauacred two Brace of Deer after this unfair 
way, of which they brought us one Brace whole, and only the 
Primings of the reft. So many were abfent on this Occafion, 
that we who remained excufd the Chaplain from the Trouble of 
fpending his Spirits by Preaching to fo thin a Congregation. 
One of the men, who had been an old Indian Trader, brought 
me a Stem of Silk Grafs, which was about as big as my little 
Finger. But, being fo late in the Year that the Leaf was fallen 
off, I am not able to defcribe the Plant. 

The Indians uie it in all their little Manufactures, twitting a 
Thread of it that is prodigioufly Strong. Of this they make 
their Bafkets and the Aprons which their Women wear about 
their Middles, for Decency's Sake. Tliefe are long enough to 
wrap quite round them and reach down to their Knees, with a 
Fringe on the under part by way of Ornament. 

They put on this modeft covering with fo much art, that the 
moft impertinent curiofity can't in the Negligenteft of their Mo- 
tions or Poftures make the lead difcovery. As this fpecies of 
Silk Grafs is much Stronger than Hemp, I make no doubt but 
Sail Cloth and Cordage might be made of it with confiderable 

We had all been fo refrefht by oui day of reft, that we dc- fJ 
camp'd earlier than Ordinary, and pafied the Several Fords of 

172 The Hiftory of the 

1729 Hico River. The Woods were thick great Part of this Day's 
Nov. Journey, fo that we were forced to fcuffle hard to advance 7 
""~ Y miles, being equal in fatigue to double that difbnce of Clear and 
Open Grounds. 

We took up our Quarters upon Sugar-tree Creek, in the fame 
camp we had lain in when we came up, and happen'd to be en- 
tertained at Supper with a Rarity we had never had the fortune 
to meet with before, during the whole Expedition. 

A little wide of this creek, one of the men had the Luck to 
meet with a Young Buffalo of two Years Old. It was a Bull, 
which, notwithstanding he v/as no older, was as big as an ordi- 
nary Ox. His Legs are very thick and very Short, and his 
Hoofs exceeding broad. His Back rofe into a kind of Bunch a 
little above the Shoulders, which I believe contributes not a little 
to that creature's enormous Strength. His Body is vaftly deep 
from the moulders to the Briiket, fometimes 6 feet in thofe that 
that are full grown. The portly figure of this Animal is dif- 
grae'd by a Shabby little Tail, not above 12 Inches long. This he 
cocks up on end whenever he's in a Paflion, and, inftead of low- 
ing or bellowing, grunts with no better grace than a Hog. 

The Hair growing on his Head and Neck is long and Shagged, 
and fo Soft that it will Spin into Thread not unlike Mohair, 
which might be wove into a Sort of Camlet. Some People have 
Stockings knit of it, that would have ferv'd an Ifraelite during 
his forty Years' march thro' the Wildernefs. 

Its horns are fhort and Strong, of which the Indians make 
large Spoons, which they fay will Split and fall to Pieces when- 
ever Poifon is put into them. Its Colour is a dirty Brown, and 
its hide fo thick that it is Scarce penetrable. However, it makes 
very Spongy Sole Leather by the ordinary method of Tanning, 
tho' this fault might by good Contrivance be mended. 

As thick as this poor Beaft's Hide was, a Bullet made Shift 

Dividing Line. 173 

to enter it and fetch him down. It was found all alone, tho' Buf- j„ ?Q 
faloes Seldom are. They ufually range about in Herds, like other Nov. 
cattle, and, tho' they differ fomething in figure, are certainly of "*"" "*v — ' 
the Same Species. There are two Reafons for this Opinion : 
the Flefh of both has exactly the fame tafte, and the mixed 
Breed betwixt both, they fay, will generate. All the Difference 
I could perceive between the Flefh of Buffalo and Common 
Beef was, that the Flefh of the fir ft was much Yellower than 
that of the other, and the Lean fomething tougher. 

The Men were (o delighted with this new dyct, that the 
Gridiron and Frying-Pan had no more reft all night, than a poor 
Hufband Subject to Curtain Lectures. Buffaloes may be eafily 
tamed when they are taken Young. The beft way to catch 
them is to carry a Milch Mare into the Woods, and when you 
find a Cow and Calf, to kill the Cow, and then having catch'd 
the Calf, to Suckle it upon the Alare. After once or twice 
Sucking Her, it will follow her Home, and become as gentle as 
another calf. 

If we cou'd get into a breed of them, they might be made 
very ufefull, not only for the Dairy, by giving an Ocean of 
Milk, but alio for drawing vaft and cumberfome Weights by 
their prodigious Strength. Thefe, with the other Advantages I 
mention'd before, wou'd make this fort of Cattle more profitable 
to the owner, than any other we are acquainted with, though 
they would need a world of Provender. 

Before we marcht this Morning, every man took care to pack 12 
up fome Buffalo Steaks in his Wallet, befides what he crammed 
into his Belly. When Provifions were Plenty, we always found 
it Difficult to get out early, being too much Embarraft with a 
long-winded Breakfaft. 

However, by the Strength of our Beef, we made a fhift to walk 
about 12 Miles, croffing Blewing and Tewaw-homini Creeks. 

1 74 The Hijiory of the 

lj 2 q And becaufe this laft Stream receiv'd its Appellation from the 
Nov. Difafter of a Tufcarora Indian, it will not be Straggling much 
v— ^ out of the way to fay fomething of that Particular Nation. 

Thefe Indians were heretofore very numerous and powerful, 
making, within time of Memory, at leaft a Thoufand Fighting 
Men. Their Habitation, before the War with Carolina, was 
on the North Branch of Neufe River, commonly call'd Con- 
necla Creek, in a pleafant and fruitful Country. But now the 
few that are left of that Nation live on the North Side of Mo- 
ratuck, which is all that Part of Roanok below the great Falls, 
towards Albemarle Sound. 

Formerly there were Seven Towns of thefe Savages, lying not 
far from each other, but now their Number is greatly redue'd. 

The Trade they have had the Misfortune to drive with the 
Englifh has furnifht them conftantly with Rum, which they 
have ufed fo immoderately, that, what with the Diftempers, and 
what with the Quarrels it begat amongft them, it has proved a 
double DeftrucStion. 

But the greateft Confumption of thefe favages happen'd by 
the war about Twenty-Five years ago, on Account of fome In- 
juftice the Inhabitants of that Province had done them about 
their Lands. 

It was on that Provocation they refented their wrongs a little 
too feverely upon Mr. Lawfon, who, under Colour of being 
Surveyor gen'l, had encroacht too much upon their Territories, 
at which they were fo enrag'd, that they waylaid him, and cut 
his Throat from Ear to Ear, but at the fame time releaf'd the 
Baron de Graffcnried, whom they had Seized for Company, be- 
caufe it appear'd plainly he had done them no Wrong. 

This Blow was followed by fome other Bloody Actions on 
the Part of the Indians, which brought on the War, wherein 
many of them were but off, and many were oblig'd to flee for 
Refuge to the Senecas, fo that now there remain fo few, that 

Dividing Line. ijc 

they are in Danger of bing quite exterminated by the Catawbas, »- ?Q 
their mortal Enemies. Nov. 

Thefe Indians have a very odd Tradition amongft them, that v — > — ' 
many years ago, their Nation was grown fo dimoneft, that no 
man cou'd keep any Goods, or fo much as his loving Wife to 
himfelf. That, however, their God, being unwilling to root 
them out for their crimes, did them the honour to fend a Mef- 
fenger from Heaven to inilrucl: them, and fet Them a perfect 
Example of Integrity and kind Behavior towards one another. 

But this holy Perfon, with all his Eloquence and Sanctity of 
Life, was able to make very little Reformation among!! them. 
Some few Old Men did liften a little to his Wholefomc Advice, 
but all the Young fellows were quite incorrigible. They not 
only Neglected his Precepts, but derided and Evil Entreated his 
Perfon. At lail, taking upon Him to reprove fome Young 
Rakes of the Conechta Clan very fharply for their impiety, they 
were fo provok'd at the Freedom of his Rebukes, that they tied 
him to a Tree, and mot him with Arrows through the Heart. 
But their God took inflant Vengeance on all who had a hand in 
that rYJonftrous A<5t, by Lightning from Heaven, & has ever 
fince vifited their Nation with a continued Train of Calamities, 
nor will he ever leave off punifhing, and wafting their People, 
till he (hall have blotted every living Soul of them out of the 

Our Hunters fhot nothing this whole day but a ftraggling 
Bear, which happen'd to fall by the Hand of the very Perfon 
who had been lately dilarm'd and put to flight, for which he dc- 
clar'd War again!!: the whole Species. 

We purfued our Journey with all Diligence, and forded 13 
Ohimpamony Creek about Noon, and from thence proceeded to 
Yatapfco, which we cou'd not crofs without difficulty. The 
Beavers had dammed up the Water much higher than we found 

176 The Hijhry of the 

iy2g it at our going up, fo that we were ohlig'd to lay a Bridge over a 
Nov. part that was fhallower than the reft, to facilitate our pafiage, 
*— v~^ Beavers have more of Inftina, that Half-Brother of Reafon, 
than any other Animal, efpecially in matters of Self-Prefervation. 
In their Houfes they always contrive a Sally-Port, both towards 
the Land and towards the Water, that fo they may efcape by 
One, if their Retreat fhou'd happen to be cut off at the other, 

They perform all their Works in the Dead of Night, to avoid 
Difcovery, and are kept diligently to it by the Mafter Beaver, 
which by his age or ffrerigth has gain'd to himfelf an Authority 
over the reft. If any of the Gang happen to be lazy, or will 
not exert himfelf to the utmoft in felling of Trees, or dragging 
them the place where they are made ufe of, this Superintendent 
will not fail to chaftife him with the Flat of the Tail wherewith 
he is able to give unmerciful ftrokes. 

They lie Snug in their Houfes all day, unlefs fome unneigh- 
bourly Miller chance to difturb their repofe, by demolifhing their 
Dams for fupplving his Mill with Water. 

It is rare to fee one of them, and the Indians for that Reafon 
have hardly any way to take them, but by laying Snares near the 
place where they dam up the Water. But the Englifh Hunters 
have found out a more effectual Method, by ufing the following 
receipt. Take the Large Pride of the Beaver, Squeeze all the 
Juice out of it, then take the fmall Pride, and Squeeze out about 
5 or 6 Drops. Take the infide of Saffafras Bark, Powder it, 
and mix it with the Liquor, and place this Bait conveniently for 

your Steel Trap. 

The Story of their biting off their Tefticles to compound for 
their Lives, when they are purfued, is a ftory taken upon truft by 
Pliny like many others. Nor is it the Beavers' Tefticles that 
carry the Perfume, but they have a Pair of Glands juft within 
the Fundament, as Sweet as Mufk, that perfume their Dung, 

Dividing Line. \nn 

and communicate a ftrono; fcent to their Tefticles, by bein^ 
plac'cl near them. Nov 

It is true Several creatures have Strange inftincls for their v — v— - 
Prefervation, as the Egyptian Frog, we are told by Elian, will 
carry a whole Joint of a Reed acrofs its Mouth, that it may not be 
fwallow'd by the ibis. 

And this Long-neckt fowl will give itfelf a clyfter with its 
Beak, whenever it finds itfelf too coftive or feverifh. The 
Dogs of that Country Jap the Water of the Nile in a full Trot, 
that they may not be Snapped by the Crocodiles. Both Beavers 
and Wolves, we know, when one of their Legs is caught in a 
Steel Trap, will bite it off", that they may efcape with the reft. 
The Flefh of the Beavers is tough and dry, all but the Tail, 
which, like the Parrot's Tongue, was one of the far-fetched 
Rarities with which Heliogabalus ufed to furnifh his Luxurious 

The Fur of thefe creatures is very valuable, efpecially in the 
more Northern Countries, where it is longer and finer. This 
the Dutch have lately contriv'd to mix with their Wool, and 
Weave into a Sort of Drugget, that is not only warm, but won- 
derfully light and Soft. They alfo make Gloves and Stockings 
of it, that keep out the Cold almoft as well as the Fur itfelf, and 
do not look quite fo Savage. 

There is a deal of Rich low Ground on Yapatfco Creek, but 
I believe liable to be overflow'd in a frefh. Plowever, it might 
be proper enough for Rice, which receives but little Injury from 

We encampt on the Banks of Maflamony Creek, 2fter a 
Journey of more than u Miles. By the way we Shot a fat 
Doe and a wild Turkey, which fed us all plentifully. And we 
have reafon to fay, by our own happy Experience, that no man 
need to defpair of his daily Bread in the Woods, whofe faith is 
but half fo large as his Stomach. 

1 78 The Hiftory of the 

Being at length happily arriv'd within 20 Miles of the upper- 

Nov. m °ft Inhabitants, we defpacht two Men who had the ableft 

■— v — -' Horfes, to go before, and get a Beef kill'd and fome Bread bak'd 

J 4 to refrefh their Fellow Travellers, upon their arrival. They 

had likewife Orders to hire an exprefs to carry a Letter to the 

Governor, giving an Account that we were all returned in Safety. 

This was the more neceflary, becaufe we had been fo long ab- 

fent that many now began to fear we were, by this time, Scalpt 

and barbacu'd by the Indians. 

We decampt with the reft of the People about ten a clock, 
and marched near 12 Miles. In our way we Crofl Nutbufh 
Creek, and 4 Miles farther we came upon a beautiful Branch of 
Great Creek, where we took up our Quarters. The Tent was 
pitched upon an Eminence, which overlookt a wide Piece of 
low Grounds, cover'd with Reeds and watered by a Crvftal 
Stream, gliding thro' the Middle of it. On the Other Side cf 
this delightful Valley, which was about half a Mile wide, rofe a 
Hill that terminated the View, and in the figure of a Semicircle 
clofed in upon the oppofite Side of the Valley. This had a moft 
agreeable Effecl: upon the Eye, and wanted nothing but Cattle 
grazing in the Meadow, and Sheep and Goats feeding on the 
Hill, to make it a Compleat Rural Landscape. 

The Indian kill'd a Fawn, which, being upon its growth, was 
not fat, but made fome amends by being tender. He alfo Shot 
an Otter, but our People were now better fed than to eat fuch 
Coarfe Food. The truth of it is, the Flefh of this Creature has 
a rank Fifhy tafle, and for that reafon might be a proper Regale 
for the Samoeids, who drink the Czar of Muscovy's health 
and toaft their MifhefTes in a Bumper of Train Oil. 

The Carthufians, to favc their Vow of eating no Flefh, pro- 
nounce this Amphibious Animal to be a Fifh, and feed upon it 
as fuch, without Wounding their Confciences. 

The Skin of the Otter is very Soft, and the Swedes make 

Dividing Line. 179 

Caps and Socks of it, not only for Warmth, but alfo becaufe j-7 2 q 
they fancy it Strengthens the Nerves, and is good againft all Nov. 
Diftempers of the Brain. ^~> 

The otter is a great Devourer of Fifh, which arc its Natural 
Food, and whenever it betakes itfelf to a Vegetable Dyet, it is 
as fome high-Spirited Wives obey their Hufbands, by pure 
Neceflity. They dive after their Prey, tho' they can't continue 
lon^ under Water, but thruft their Nofes up to the Surface now 
and then for Breath. They are great Enemies to Weirs Set 
up in the Rivers to catch Fifh, devouring or biting to pieces all 
they find there. Nor is it either eafy to fright them from this 
kind of Robbery, or to deftroy them. The beft way I cou'd 
ever find was to float an Old Wheel juft by the Weir, and i'o 
foon as the Otter has taken a large Fifh., he will get upon the 
Wheel to eat it more at his eafe, which may give you an Oppor- 
tunity of firing upon him from the Shoar. 

One of our People Shot a large Gray Squirrel with a very 
Buihy Tail, a fingular ufe of which our merry Indian difcovcrd 
to us. He faid whenever this little Animal has occafion to crofs 
a run of Water, he launches a Chip or Piece of Bark into the 
Water, on which he embarks, and, holding up his Tail to the 
wind, he Sails over very Safely. If This be true, it is probable 
men learnt at firft the ufe of Sails from thefe ingenious little 
Animals, as the Hottentots learnt the Phyfical ufe of molt of 
their Plants from the Baboons. 

About three Miles from our Camp we paffed Great Creek, 15 
and then, after travcrfing very barren grounds for 5 Miles to- 
gether, we croft the Tradeing Path, and foon after had the 
pleafure of reaching the uppermoft Inhabitant. This was a 
Plantation belonging to colonel Mumford, where our Men almofr. 
buift themfelves with Potatoes and Milk. Yet as great a 
Curiofity as a Houfe was to us Forcfters, ftill we chofe to lie in 
the Tent, as being much the cleaner and fvvcetei Lodging. 

180 The Hijlory of the 

I7?q The Tradeing Path above-mention'd receives its Name from 

Nov. being the Route the Traders take with their Caravans, when 

— ""v"—' they go to traflick with the Catawbas and other Southern Indians. 

The Catawbas live about 250 Miles beyond Roanoke River, and 

yet our Traders find their Account in transporting Goods from 

Virginia to trade with them at their own Towne. 

The Common Method of carrying on this Indian Commerce 
is as follows : Gentlemen fend for Goods proper for fuch a 
Trade from England, and then either Venture them out at their 
own Rifle to the Indian Towns, or clfe credit fome Traders with 
them of Subftance and Reputation, to be paid in Skins at a cer- 
tain Price agreed betwixt them. 

The Goods for the Indian Trade confift chiefly in Guns, 
Powder, Shot, Hatchets, (which the Indians call Tomahawks,) 
Kettles, red & blue Planes, Duffields, Stroudwater blankets, and 
fome Cutlary Wares, Brafs Rings and other Trinkets. 

Thefe Wares are made up into Packs and Carry'd upon 
Horfes, each Load being from 150 to 200 Pounds, with which 
they are able to travel about 20 Miles a day, if Forage happen 
to be plentiful. 

Formerly a Hundred Plorfes have been employ'd in one of 
thefe Indian Caravans, under the Conduct of 15 or 16 Perfons 
only, but now the Trade is much impair'd, infomuch that they 
feldom go with half that Number. 

The Courfe from Roanoke to the Catawbas is laid down 
neareft South-weft, and lies thro' a fine Country, that is Water'd 
by Several beautiful Rivers. 

Thofe of the greatefr. Note are, firft, Tar river, which is the 
uppear Part of Parnptico, Flat river, Little river and Eno river, 
all three Branches of Neufe. 

Between Eno and Saxapahaw rivers are the Haw old fields, 
which have the Reputation of containing the moft fertile highland 
in this part of the World, lying in a Body of about 50,000 acres. 

Dividing Line. 181 

This Saxapahaw is the upper Part of Cape Fair River, the i~2o 
falls of which lye many Miles below the Trading Path. Nor. 

Some iMountains overlook this Rich Spot of Land, from ~y~— 
whence all the Soil wafhes down into the Plane, and is the Caufc 
of its exceeding Fertility. Not far from thence the Path erodes 
Aramanchy River, a branch of Saxapahaw, and about 40 
Miles beyond that, Deep River, which is the N Branch of Pedee. 
Then 40 miles bevond that, the Path interfecls the Yadkin, 
which is there half a Mile over, and is fuppofed to be the South 
Branch of the fame Pedee. 

The Soil is exceedingly rich on both fides the Yadkin, abound- 
ing in rank Grafs and prodigioufly large Trees ; and for plenty 
of Fim, Fowl and Venifon, is inferior to No Part of the North- 
ern Continent. There the Traders commonly lie Still for fume 
days, to recruit their Horfes' Flefh as well as to recover their 
own Spirits. Six Miles further is Crane Creek, fo nam'd from 
its being the Rendezvous of great Armies of Cranes, which 
wage a more cruel War at this day, with the Frogs and the Fifh, 
than they uf'd to do with the Pigmies in the Days of Homer. 

About three-fcore Miles more bring you to the fir ft Town of 
the Catawbas, call'd Nauvafa, fituated on the banks of Santee 
river. Befides this Town there are five Others belonging to the 
fame Nation, lying all on the fame Stream, within the Difbnce 
of 20 Miles. 

Thefe Indians were all call'd formerly by the general Name 
of the Ufherees, and were a very Numerous and Powerful 
People. But the frequent Slaughters made upon them by the 
Northern Indians, and, what has been ftill more deftruclive by 
far, the Intemperance and Foul Diflcmpers introdue'd amongft 
them by the Carolina Traders, have now redue'd their Numbers 
to little More than 400 Fighting Men, befides Women & Chil- 
dren. It is a charming Place where they live, the Air very 
Wholefome, the Soil fertile, and the Winters ever mild and Serene. 

1 82 The Ilijlory of the 

j» 2 q In Saritee river, as In Several others of Carolina, a Small Kind 
Nov. of allegator is frequently feen, which perfumes the Water with 
•«~~v~~-' a Mufky Smell. They Seldom exceed Eight Feet in Length in 
thefe parts, whereas, near the Equinoctial, they come up to twelve 
or Fourteen. And the heat of the Climate don't only make 
them bigger, but more Fierce and Voracious. They watch the 
Cattle there when they come to drink and Cool themfelves in 
the River j and becaufe they are not able to drag them into the 
Deep Water, they make up by Stratagem what they want in 
Force. They Swallow great Stones, the Weight of which be- 
ing'added to their Strength, enables them to tug a Adoderate Cow 
under Water, and as foon as they have drown'd her, they dis- 
charge the Stones out of their Maw and then feaft upon the 
Carcafs. However, as Fierce and as Strong as thefe Mon iters 
are, the Indians will Surprife them Napping as they float upon 
the Surface, get aftride upon their Necks, then whip a fhort 
piece of wood like a Truncheon into their Jaws, & holding the 
Ends with their two hands, hinder them from diving by keeping 
their mouths open, and when they are almoft Spent, they will 
make to the fhoar, where their Riders knock them on the Head 
and Eat them. This Amphibious Animal is a Smaller kind of 
Crocodile, having the Same Shape exactly, only the Crocodile 
of the Nile is twice as long, being when full grown from 20 to 
Thirty Feet. This Enormous Length is the more to be won- 
der'd at, becaufe the Crocodile is hatcht from an Eog very little 
larger than that of a Goofe. It has a long Head, which it can 
open very wide, with very Sharp & Strong teeth. Their Eyes 
are Small, their Legs Short, with Claws upon their Feet. Their 
Tail makes half the Length of their Body, and the whole is 
guarded w v ith hard impenetrable Scales, except the Belly, which 
is much Softer and Smoother. They keep much upon the 
Land in the day time, but towards the Evening retire into the 
Water to avoid the Cold Dews of the Night. They run pretty 

Dividing Line. 183 

faft right forward, but are very awkward and Slow in turning t ~™ 
by reafon of their unwieldy Length. It is an Error that they Nov. 
have no Tongue, without which they cou'd hardly Swallow ^""^ — 
their Food ; but in eating they move the upper Jaw only, Con- 
trary to all other Animals. The way of catching them in Egypt 
is, with a Strong Hook fixt to the End of a chain and baited 
with a joynt of Pork, which they are very fond of. But a live 
Hog is generally tyed near, the Cry of which allures them to 
the Hook. This Account of the Crocodile will agree in moll 
particulars with the Alligator, only the Bignefs of the lad can- 
not entitle it to the Name of "Leviathan," which Job gave 
formerly to the crocodile, and not to the Whale, as fome Inter- 
preters wou'd make us believe. 

So Soon as the Catawba Indians are inform'd of the Approach 
of the Virginia Caravans, they fend a Detachment of their 
Warriors to bid them Welcome, and efcort them Safe to their 
Town, where they are receiv'd with great Marks of Diftin£Hon. 
And their Courtefys to the Virginia Traders, I dare fey, are 
very Sincere, becaufe they fell them better Goods and better 
Pennyworths than the Traders of Carolina. They commonly 
refide among the Indians till they have barter'd their Goods 
away for Skins, with which they load their Horfcs and come- 
back by the Same Path they went. 

There are generally fome Carolina Traders that constantly 
live among the Catawbas, and pretend to Exercife a dictatorial 
Authority over them. Thefe petty Rulers don't only teach the 
honefter Savages all forts of Debauchery, but are unfair in their 
dealings, and ufe them with all kinds of Oppreilion. Nor has 
their Behaviour been at all better to the red of the Indian Na- 
tions, among whom they refide, by abuftng their Women and 
Evil-entreating their Men ; and, by the way, this was the true 
Reafon of the fatal War which the Nations roundabout made 
upon Carolina in the year 17 13. 

184 *£he Hiflory of the 

I7?Q Then it was that all the Neighbouring Indians, grown weary 

Nov. of the Tyranny and Injuftice with which they had been abuf'd 

— *—-' for many Years, refolv'd to endure their bondage no longer, 

but enter'd into General Confederacy againft their OpprefTors of 


The Indians open'd the War by knocking moft of thofe little 
Tyrants on the Head that dwelt amongft them, under pretence 
of regulating their Commerce, and from thence Carry'd their 
Refentment fo far as to endanger both North and South 
16 We gave Orders that the Horfes fliou'd pafs Rcanoak River 
at Monifep Ford, while moft of the Baggage was tranfported in 
a Canoe. 

We landed at the Plantation of Cornelius Keith, where I be- 
held the wretchedeft Scene of Poverty I had ever met with in 
this happy Part of the World. The Man, his Wife and Six 
Small Children, liv'd in a Penn, like fo many Cattle, without 
any Roof over their Pleads but that of Heaven. And this was 
their airy Refidence in the Day time, but then there was a Fod- 
der Stack not far from this Inclofure, in which the whole Family 
fhelter'd themfelves a night's and in bad weather. 

However, 'twas alrnoft worth while to be as poor as this Man 
was, to be as perfectly contented. All his Wants proceeded 
from Indolence, and not from Misfortune. He had good Land, 
as well as good Health and good Limbs to work it, and, befides, 
had a Trade very ufeful to all the Inhabitants round about. 
He cou'd make and fet up Quern Stones very well, and had 
proper Materials for that purpofe juft at Hand, if he cou'd have 
taken the pains to fetch them. 

There is no other kind of Mills in thofe remote parts, and, 

- therefore, if the Man wou'd have Workt at his Trade, he micrht 

have liv'd very comfortably. The poor woman had a little 

Dividing Line. 185 

more Induftry, and Spun Cotton enough to make a thin cover- j^q 
ing for her own and her children's Nakednefs. Nov. 

I am forry to fay it, but Idlenefs is the general character of the ^"--v— • 
Men in the Southern Parts of this Colony as well as in North 
Carolina. The Air is fo mild, and the foil fo fruitful, that very 
little Labour is requir'd to fill their Bellies, efpecially where the 
Woods afford fuch Plenty of Game. Thefe advantages dis- 
charge the Men from the Neeemty of killing themfelvcs with 
Work, and then for the other Article of Raiment, a very little 
of that will fuffice in fo temperate a Climate. But fo much as 
is abfolutely NecelTary falls to the good women's Share to pro- 
vide. They all Spin, weave and knit, whereby they make a 
good Shift to cloath the whole Family ; and to their credit be it 
recorded, many of them do it very completely, and thereby re- 
proach their Hufbands' Lazinefs in the moft inofVenfive way, 
that is to fay, by difcovering a better Spirit of Induftry in them- 

From thence we mov'd forward to Colo Mum ford's other 
Plantation, under the Care of Miles Riley, where, by that Gen- 
tleman's Directions, we were again Supply'd with many good 
things. Here it was we difcharg'd our Worthy Friend and Fel- 
low Travellaur, Mr. Bearfkin, who had fo plentifully Supplved 
us with Provifions during our long Expedition. We rewarded 
Him to his Heart's content, fo that he return'd to his Town 
Joaden, both with Riches and the Reputation of haveing been a 
great Difcoverer. 

This being Sunday, we were Seafonably put in mind how 1 7 
much we were oblig'd to be thankfull for our happy return to 
the Inhabitants. Indeed, we had great reafon to reflet with 
Gratitude on the Signal Mercies we had receiv'd. Firft, that 
we had, day by day, been fed by the Bountifull hand of Provi- 
dence in the defolate Wildernefs, lnfomuch that if any of our 

1 86 The liiftory of the 

1729 People wanted one Single Meal during the whole Expedition, it 
Nov. was intirely owing to their own imprudent Management. 
■""v"" 1 Secondly, that not one Man of our whole Company, had any 
Violent Diltemper or bad Accident Befall him, from One End 
of the Line to the other. The very word that happen'd was, 
that One of them gave himfelf a Smart cut on the Pan of his 
knee with a Tomahawk, which we had the good Fortune to 
cure in a Short time, without the help of a Surgeon. 

As for the Mifadventures of Sticking in the Mire and falling 
into Rivers and Creeks, they were rather Subjects of Mirth than 
complaint, and ferv'd only to diverfify our Travels with a little 
farcicall Variety. And, laftly, that many uncommon Incidents 
have concurr'd to profper our Undertaking. We had not only 
a dry Spring before we went out, but the preceding Winter, and 
even a Year or two before, had been much dryer than Ordinary. 
This made not only the Difmal, but likewife moft of the Sunken 
Grounds near the Sea-Side, juft hard enough to bear us, which 
otherwife had been quite unpaflible. 

And the whole [time we were upon the Bufinefs, which was 
in all about Sixteen Weeks, we were never catch't in the Rain 
except once, Nor was our Progrefs Interrupted by bad Weather 
above 3 or 4 days at mod. Befides all this, we were Surpriz'd 
by no Indian Enemy, but all of us brought our Scalps back Safe 
upon our Heads. 

This cruel Method of Scalping of Enemies is prac"lif'd by all 
the Savages in America, and perhaps is not the leaft proof of 
their Original from the Northern Inhabitants of Afia. Among 
the Ancient Scythians it was conftantly uf'd, who carry'd about 
thefe hairy Scalps as Trophies of Victory. They ferv'd them 
too as Towels at home, and Trappings for their Horfes abroad. 
But thefe were not content with the Skin of their Enemies' 
Heads, but alfo made vft of their Sculls for cups to drink out of 

~Divldi?ig Line. 187 

upon high Feftival days, & made greater Orientation of them 
than if they had been made of Gold or the purefr. cryftal. jJ , 

Befidcs the Duties of the Day, we chriften'd one of our Men *•—- ^~ 
who had been bred a Quaker. The Man delir'd this of his 
own mere Motion, without being tamper'd with by the Parfon, 
who was willing every one fhou'd go to Heaven his own way. 
But whether he did it by the Conviction of his Own Reafon, or 
to get rid of fome Troublefome Forms and Rcftraints, to which 
the Saints of that Perfwafion are Subject, I can't Pofitively fay. 

We proceeded over a Levil Road i?. Miles, as far as George 18 
Hixe's Plantation, on the South Side Meherrin River, Our 
Courfe being for the moft part North-Eaft. By the way we 
hired a Cart to tranfport our Baggage, that we might the better 
befriend our Jaded Horfes. 

Within 2 Miles of our Journey's End this day, we met the 
Exprefs We had fent the Saturday before to give Notice of our 
Arrival. He had been almoft as Expeditious as a carrier Pigeon, 
rideing in 2 Days no lefs than 200 Miles. 

All the Grandees of the Sappony Nation did us the Honour 
to repair hither to meet us, and our worthy Friend and P'ellow 
Traveller, Bearfkin, appear'd among the graveft of them in his 
Robes of ceremony. Four Young Ladies of the firft Quality 
came with them, who had more the Air of cleanlinefs than any 
copper-Colour'd Beauties I had ever feen ; Yet we refilled all 
their Charms, Notwithftanding the long Faft we had kept from 
the Sex, and the Bear Dyet we had been fo long engag'd in. 
Nor can I fay the Price they fat upon their Charms was at all 
Exorbitant. A Princcfs for a Pair of Red Stockings can't> 
furely, be thought buying Repentance much too dear. 

The Men had fomething great and Venerable in their coun- 
tenances, beyond the common Mien of Savages ; and indeed 
they ever had the Reputation of being the Honefleft, as well as 
the braveft Indians we have ever been acquainted with. 

1 88 The Hiftory of the 

I72Q This People is now made up of the Remnant of Several other 

Nov. Nations, of which the moft confiderable are the Sapponys, the 

^~~v-~* Occaneches, and Steukenhocks, who not finding themfelves 

Separately Numerous enough for their Defence, have agreed to 

unite into one Body, and all of them now go under the Name 

of the Sapponys. 

Each of thefe was formerly a diftincT: Nation, or rather a 
Several clan or Canton of the Same Nation, Speaking the Same 
Language, and ufing the fame Cuftoms. But their perpetual 
Wars againft all other Indians, in time, redue'd them fo low as 
as to make it NecefTary to join their Forces together. 

They dwelt formerly not far below the Mountains, upon 
Yadkin River, about 200 Miles Weft and by South from the 
Falls of Roanoak. But about 25 Years ago they took Refuge 
in Virginia, being no longer in condition to make Head not only 
againft the Northern Indians, who are their Implacable enemies, 
but alfo againft moft of thofe to the South. All the Nations 
round about, bearing in mind the Havock thefe Indians uf'd 
formerly to make among their Anceftors in the Infolence of 
their Power, did at length avenge it Home upon them, and made 
them glad to apply to this Government for protection. 

Colo Spotfwood, our then lieut. governor, havino- a eood 
Opinion of their Fidelity & Courage, Settled them at Chriftanna, 
ten Miles north of Roanoak, upon the belief that they wou'd be 
a good Barrier on that Side of the Country, againft the Incur- 
fion of all Foreign Indians. And in Earneft they wou'd have 
Serv'd well enough for that Purpofe, if the White People in the 
Neighbourhood had not debauch't their Morals, and ruin'd their 
Health with Rum, which was the Caufe of many diforders, and 
ended at laft in a barbarous Murder committed by one of thefe 
Indians when he was drunk, for which the poor Wretch was 
executed when he was fober. 

It was matter of great Concern to them, however, that one of 

Dividing Line 189 

their Grandees mould be put to fo ignominious a Death. All r ~ ?c . 
Indians have as great an Averfion to hanging as the Mufcovitcs, Nov. 
tho' perhaps not for the fame cleanly reafon : Thefe lafl bcliev- ■*"""" 
ing that the Soul of one that dies in this manner, being fore'd to 
Sally out of the Body at the Poftern, muft needs be denied. 
The Sapponys took this Execution fo much to Heart, that they 
foon after quitted their Settlement and remov'd in a Body to the 

The Daughter of the Tetero king went away with the 
Sapponys, but being the laft of her Nation, and fearing me 
Shou'd not be treated according to her Rank, poifon'd herfelf, 
like an Old Roman, with the Root of the Trumpet-Plant. Her 
Father dy'd 2 Years before, who was the moil intrepid Indian 
we have been acquainted with. He had made himfelf terrible 
to all other Indians by His Exploits, and had efcaped fo many 
Dangers that he was efteem'd invulnerable. But at laft he dy'd 
of a Pleurify, the laft Man of his Race and Nation, leaving only 
that unhappy Daughter behind him, who would not long furvive 

The mod uncommon Circumftance in this Indian vint Was, 
that they all came on Horfe-back, which was certainly intended 
for a Piece of State, becaufe the Diftance was but 3 Miles, and 
'tis likely they had walk't a foot twice as far to catch their 
Horfes. The Men rode more awkwardly than any Dutch 
Sailor, and the Ladies beftrode their Palfreys a la mode de France, 
but were fo bafhful about it, that there was no perfuading them 
to Mount till they were quite out of our Sight. 

The French Women uie to ride a-ftraddle, not fo much to 
make thern fit firmer in the Saddle, as from the hopes the fame 
thing might peradventure befall them that once happen'd to the 
Nun of Orleans, who efcaping out of a Nunnery, took Poft 
en Cavalier, and in ten Miles' hard rideing had the good For- 
tune to have all the Tokens of a Man break out upon her. 

190 The Hi/lory of the 

__ 20 This Piece of Hiftory ought to be the more credible, becaufe 
Nov. it leans upon much the fame Degree of Proof as the Tale of 
"""v" ""' Bifhop Burnet's Two Italian Nuns, who, according to his Lord- 
fhip's Account, underwent the Same happy Metarnorphofis, 
probably by fome other Violent Exercife. 
19 From hence we defpatch't the Cart with our Baggage under 
a Guard, and crofTt A'Ieherrin River, which was not 30 Yards 
wide in that Place. By the help of Frefh Horfes that had been 
fent us, we now began to mend our Pace, which was alfo quick- 
ened by the Strong Inclinations we had to get Home. 

In the Diftance of 5 Miles we forded Meherrin creek, 
which was very near as broad as the River. About 8 Miles 
farther we came to SruRGEON-Creek, fo call'd from the Dexte- 
rity an Occaanechy Indian fhewed there in Catching one of 
thofe Royal Fifh, which was perform'd after the following 

In the Summer time 'tis no unufual thing for Sturgeons to 
Sleep on the Surface of the Water, and one of them having 
wander'd up into this Creek in the Spring, was floating in that 
drowfy condition. 

The Indian, above mention'd, ran up to the Neck into the 
Creek a little below the Place where he difcover'd the Fifh, ex- 
pecting the Stream wou'd foon bring his Game down to Him. 
He judg'd the Matter right, and as Soon as it came within his 
Reach, he whip't a running Noofe over his Jole. This waked 
the Sturgeon, which being Strong in its own Element darted im- 
mediately under Water and dragg'd the Indian after Him. The 
Man made it a Point of Honour to keep his Hold, which he did 
to the Apparent Danger of being drown'd. Sometimes both the 
Indian and the Fifh difappear'd for a Quarter of a Minute, 8c 
then rofc at fome Diftance from where they dived. At this rate 
they continued flouncing about, Sometimes above and fomctimes 

Dividing Line. igi 

under Water, for a conficierable time, till at laft. the Hero T ~., 
Suffocated his Adverfary, and haled his Body afhoar in Triumph. Nov. 

About Six Miles beyond that, we pafTed over Wicco-quoi s — -v-*-' 
creek, Named fo from the Multitude of Rocks over which the 
Water tumbles in a Frem, with a bellowing Noife. Not far 
from where we went over, is a Rock much higher than the reft, 
that Strikes the Eye with agreeable Horror, and near it a very 
Talkative Eccho, that, like a fluent Help-meet, will return her 
good Man Seven Words for one, & after all, be Sure to have the 
Laft. It fpeaks not only the Language of Men, but alio of 
Birds & Beafts, and often a Single Wild Goofe is cheated into 
the Belief that Some of his Company are not far off, by hearing 
his own cry multiply'd ; & 'tis pleafant to fee in what a flutter 
the Poor Bird is, when he finds himfelf difappointed. 

On the Banks of this creek are very broad low-Grounds in 
many Places, and abundance of good high-Land, tho' a little 
Subjeci to Floods. 

We had but two Miles more to Capt. Embry's, where we 
found the Houfekeeping much better than the Houfe. Our 
Bountifull Landlady had fet her Oven and all her Spits, Pots, 
Gridirons and Saucepans to work, to diverfify our Entertain- 
ment, tho' after all it prov'd but a Mahommetan Feaft, there 
being Nothing to drink but Water. The worft of it was, we 
had unluckily outrid the Baggage, and for that Reafon were 
oblig'd to Lodge very Sociably in the Same Apartment with the 
Family, where, reckoning Women and Children, we mufter'd 
in all no lefs than Nine Perfons, who all pigg'd loveingly to- 

In the Morning colo Boiling, who had been Surveying in the 2 o 
Neighbourhood, and Mr. Walker, who dwelt not far off, came 
to vifit us ; And the laft of thefe Worthy Gentlemen, fearing 
that our drinking fo much Water might incline us to Pleurifys, 
brought us a kind Supply both of Wine and cyder. 

192 The Hiflory of the 

I72Q ^ was Noon before we cou'd difengage Ourfelves from the 

Nov. Courtefies of this Place, and then the two Gentlemen above- 

*— ^r~~ / mention'd were fo good as to accompany us that day's Journey, 

tho' they cou'd by no means approve of our Lithuanian 

Fafhion or Difmounting now and then, in order to walk part of 

the way on foot. 

We croft Nottoway River not far from our Landlord's 
Houfe, where it feem'd to be about 25 Yards over. This River 
divides the County of Prince George from that of Brunswick. 
We had not gone 8 Miles farther before our Eyes were blelT'd 
with the Sight of Sapponi chappel, which was the firft Houfe of 
Prayer we had feen for more than two calendar Months. 

About 3 Miles beyond that, we palled over Stony Creek, 
where One of thofe that Guarded the Baggage kill'd a Pol cat, 
upon which he made a Comfortable Repaft. Thofe of his 
company were fo Squeamish they cou'd not be perfuaded at 
firft to taft, as they faid, of fo unfavoury an Animal ; but feeing 
the Man Smack his Lips with more pleafure than ufual, they 
ventur'd at la ft to be of his Mefs, and inftead of finding the Flefh 
rank and high-tafted, they ovvn'd it to be the Sweeteft Morfel 
they had ever eat in their Lives. 

The ill Savour of this little Beaft lys altogether in its Urine, 
which Nature has made fo deteftably ill-fcented on purpofe to 
furnifh a helplefs Creature with Something to defend itfelf. For 
as fome Brutes have Horns and Hoofs, and others are arm'd 
with Claws, Teeth and Tufhes for their Defence ; and as Some 
Spit a Sort of Poifon at their Adverfaries, like the Paco ; and 
others dart Quills at their Purfuers, like the Porcupine ; and as 
fome have no Weapons to help thcmfelves but their Tongue, 
and others none but their Tails ; fo the poor Polcat's fafety lies 
altogether in the irreiiitible Stench of its Water ; infomuch that 
when it finds itfelf in Danger from an Enemy, it Moiftens its 
bufhy Tail plentifully with this Liquid Ammunition, and, then 

Dividing Line. 193 

with great fury, Sprinkles it like a Shower of Rain full into the J72 
Eyes of its AfTailant, by which it gains time to make its Efcape. Nov. 

Nor is the Polcat the only Animal that defends itfelf by a v — v-~ 
Stink. At the Cape of Good Hope is a little Bead, call'd a 
Stinker, as big as a Fox, and Shap't like a Ferret, which being 
purfued has no way to fave himfelf but by farting and Scatter- 
ing. And then such a Stench enfues that None of its Purfuers 
can Poflibly stand it. 

At the End of 30 good Miles, we arriv'd in the Evening at 
colo Boiling's, where firfl, from a Primitive Courfe of Life, we 
began to relapfe into Luxury. This Gentleman lives within 
Hearing of the Falls of Appamatuck River, which are very 
Noify whenever a Flood happens to roll a greater ftream than 
ordinary over the Rocks. 

The River is Navigable for Small Craft as high as the Falls, 
and at Some diftance from thence fetches a compafs, and runs 
nearly parallel with James River almoft as high as the Moun- 

While the commiflioners fared Sumptuoufly here, the poor 
Chaplain and two Surveyors, ftoppt Ten Miles Short at a puor 
Planter's Houfe, in Pity to their Horfes, made a Saint Antho- 
ny's Meal, that is, they Supp't upon the Pickings of what Stuck 
in their Teeth ever fince Brcakfalt. But to make them amends, 
the good Man laid them in his own Bed, where they all three 
neftled together in one cotton Sheet and one of Brown Ozna- 
brugs, made Still Something Browner by two Months' Copious 

But thofe worthy Gentlemen were fo alert in the Morning 21 
after their light Supper, that they came up with us before Break- 
faft, & honcllly paid their Stomachs all they ow'd them. 

We made no more than a Sabbath day's Journey from this to 
the next Hofpitable Houfe, namely, that of our great Benefactor, 
Colo Mumford. We had already been much befriended by this 

194 %b& Hijfory of the 

Gentleman, who, befidcs fending Orders to his Overfecrs at 
Roanoak to let us want for nothing, had, in the Beginning of 
our Bufmefs, been fo kind as to recommend moft of the Aden 
to us who were the faithfull Partners of our Fatigue. 

Altho' in moft other Atchievements thofe who command 
are apt to take all the Honour, to themfelves of what perhaps 
was more owing to the Vigour of those who were under them, 
Yet 1 muil be more juft, and allow thefe brave Fellows their 
full Share of credit for the Service we perform'd, & muft de- 
clare, that it was in a great Meafure owing to their Spirit and 
indefatigable Induftry that we overcame many Obftacles in the 
Courfe of our Line, which till then had been efteem'd unfur- 

Nor mufi: I at the Same time omit to do Juftice to the Sur- 
veyors, and particularly to Air. A4ayo, who, befides an eminent 
degree of Skill, encounter'd the fame Hardfhips and underwent 
the Same Fatigue that the forwarder! of the Men did, and that 
with as much Chearfulnefs as if Pain had been his Pleafure, and 
Difficulty his real Diversion. 

Here we difcharg'd the few Alen we had left, who were all 
as Ragged as the Gibeonite Ambassadors, tho', at the Same 
time, their Rags were very honourable, by the Service they had 
fo Vigoroufty performed in making them fo. 
22 A little before Noon we all took leave and difperf't to our 
Several Habitations, where we were fo happy as to find all our 
Familys well. This crown'd all our other Bleffings, and made 
our Journey as profperous as it had been painfull. 

Thus ended our Second Expedition, in which we extended 
the Line within the Shadow of the Chariky Alountains, where 
we wer. c oblig'd to Set up our Pillars, like Hercules, and return 

We had now, upon the whole, been out Sixteen Weeks, 
including going and returning, and had travell'd at leaft Six 

Dividing Line. 195 

Hundred Miles, and no Small part of that Diftance on foot. 
Below, towards the Sea Side, our Courfe lay through Marshes, 
Swamps, and great Waters ; and above, over Steep Hills, 
Craggy Rocks, and Thickets, hardly penetrable. Notwith- 
standing this variety of Hardfhips, we may fay, without Vanity, 
that we faithfully obey'd the King's Orders, and pcrform'd the 
Bufinefs effectually, in which we had the Honour to be em- 
ploy 'd. 

Nor can we by any Means reproach Ourfelves of having put 
the Crown to any exorbitant Expenfe in this difficult affair, the 
whole Charge, from Beginning to End, amounting to no more 
that One Thoufand Pounds. But let no one concern'd in this 
painful Expedition complain of the Scantinefs of his Pav, lb 
long as His Majefty has been Gracioufly pleaf'd to add to our 
Reward the Honour of his Royal approbation, and to declare, 
not with (landing the Dcfertion of the Carolina Commission- 
ers, that the Line by us run (hall hereafter Stand as the true 
Boundary betwixt the Governments of Virginia and North 





To the Foregoing Journal, containing the second Charter to the 
Proprietors of Carolina, confirming and enlarging the firft, 
and alfo feveral other a£ts to which it refers. Theft* are 
plac'd by themfelves at the End of the Book, that they may 
not interrupt the Thread of the Story, and the Reader will be 
more at liberty whether he will pleafe to read them or not, 
being fomething dry and unpleafant. 

The Second Charter granted by King Charles id to the 
Proprietors of Carolina. 

Charles, by the Grace of God, &c. : Whereas, by our 
Letters Patent, bearing date the four and twentieth day of 
march, in the fifteenth year of our Reign, we were graciouflv 
pleaf'd to grant unto our right trufty and right well beloved 
coufin and councellor, Edward, Earl of Clarendon, our high 
Chancellor of England, Our right trufty and right intirely be- 
loved Coufin and Counsellor, George, Duke of Albemarle, 
Mafter of our Horfe, our right truftvand well beloved William, 
now Earl of Craven, our Right trufty and well beloved Coun- 
fellor, Anthony, Lord Afhley, Chancellor of our Exchequer, 
our right trufty and well beloved Counsellor, Sir George Car- 
terett, Knight and Baronet, vice Chamberlain of our houfehuld, 
our right trufty and well beloved, Sir John Colleton, Knight and 
Baronet, and Sir William Berkley, Knight, all that Province, 
Territory, or Tra£v. of Ground, called Carolina, Situate, lying 
and being; within our Dominions of America, extending from 
the North End of the Uland called Luke Ifland, which lys in 
the Southern Virginia Seas, and within Six and thirty Degrees 
of the Northern Latitude ; and to the Weft as Far as the South 
Seas ; & fo refpectively as far as the River of Mathias, which 

198 The Hijiory of the 

bordereth upon the Coaft of Florida, & within one and thirty 
Decrees of the Northern Latitude, and fo weft in a direct Line 
as far as the South Seas aforefaid. Now know ye, that, at the 
humbleft requeft of the laid Grantees in the aforefaid Letters 
Patent named, and as a further mark of our efpecial favour 
towards them, we are gracioufly pleaf'd to enlarge our (aid 
Grant unto them according to the Bounds & limits hereafter 
Specify *d h in favour to the pious and noble purpofe of the laid 
Edward, Earl of Clarendon, George, Duke of Albemarle, 
William, Earl of Craven, John, Lord Berkley, Anthony, Lord 
Afhley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton and Sir William 
Berkley, we do give and grant to them, their Heirs and Affigns, 
all that Province, Territory, or tract of Ground, Situate, lying 
and being within our Dominions of America aforefaid, extending 
North and Eaihvard as far as the North end of Carahtuke River 
or Inlet, upon a Streight wefterly line to Wyonoake Creek, 
which lys within or about the Degrees of thirty-fix and thirty 
Minutes Northern Latitude, and fo Weft in a Direct line as far 
as the South Seas ; & fouth and weftward as far as the Degrees 
of twenty-nine inclufive Northern Latitude, & fo weft in a 
direct line as far as the South feas ; together with all and Sin- 
gular ports, harbours, Bays, rivers & inlets belonging unto the 
Province or Territory aforefaid. And alfo, all the Soil, lands, 
fields, Woods, Mountains, terms, Lakes, Rivers, Bays and 
Inlets, fituate, or being within the Bounds or limits lait before 
mention'd : with the timing of ail Sorts of fifh, Whales, Stur- 
geons, and all other Royal fifties in the Sea, Bays, Inlets, and 
Rivers, within the Premifes, and the fifth therein taken ; together 
with the royalty of the Sea, upon the Coaft within the limits 
aforefaid. And Moreover, all Veins, Mines and Quarries, as 
well difcover'd as not difcover'd, of Gold, Silver, Gems & pre- 
cious Stones, and all other whatfoever ; be it of Stones, Metals 
or any other thing found or to be found within the Province, 
Territory, Inlets and limits aforefaid. And furthermore, the 
Patronage & Avowfons of all the Churches & Chappels, 
which as the Chriftian Religion (hall encreafe within the Pro- 
vince Territory Ifles and limits aforefaid, Shall happen hereafter 
to be erected ; together with Licence and. Power to build & 
found Churches & Chappels & Oratories in fit and convenient 
places, within the faid Bound's and Limits ; and to Caufe them 
to be dedicated and Confecratcd, according to the Ecclefiaftical 
Laws of our Kingdom of England ; together with all and 

Dividing Line 199 

Singular the like, and as ample Rights, Iurifdi&ions. Privileges ; 
Prerogatives, Royalties, Liberties, Immunities and Francbifes 
of what kind Soever, within the Territory. Ifle's Inlets Sz Limits 
aforefaid. To have, hold, ufc. exereife & enjoy the Same as 
amply, fully and in as ample, a Manner, as any Bimop of Dur- 
ham in our Kingdom of England, ever heretofore had. held. 
ufed. or enjoy'd, or. of right, ought, or could have, ufe. or 
enjoy ; and then the Said Edward Earl of Clarendon : George. 
Duke of. Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord. 
Berkley, Anthony Lord. Afhley, Sir. George Carterett, Sir John 
Colleton and Sir William Berkley, their? Heirs and Aifigns ; 
We do by thefe Prefents ; for us. our Heirs and. Succellor's, 
make, create, and conititute the true and abfolute. Lords and 
Proprietors of the Said Province, or Territory, and of all other, 
the Premifes, faveing alway's the Faith, Allegiance and Sove- 
reign. Dominion, due to us, our Heirs, and Succeflbrs. for the 
fame ; to have, hold ; poflefs and enjoy, the faid Province, Ter- 
ritory, Inlets and all. and lingular, other the Premifes ; to them 
the faid Edward. Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albe- 
marle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berklev. Anthony 
Lord Afhley Sir. George. Carteret. Sir John Colleton & Sir 
William Berkley, their Heirs and Afligns for ever, to be holden 
of Us. Our Heirs & Sueceflbr's as of. Our Manner of Eaft. 
Greenwich in Kent in free & common Soccage Sz not in Capite 
or by Knights. Service yeelding and paying yearly to us. Our. 
Heirs. & Succeftbrs for the Same, the fourth part of all. Gold. 
& Silver. Oar which within the Limits hereby granted (hall, from 
time to time happen to be found over and befides the yearly. 
Rent of twenty Marks and the fourth part of the. Gold Sz 
Silver. Oar. in and by the faid recited Letters. Patents referv'd 
and Payable. 

And that the Province or Territory hereby granted and de- 
fcribed may be dignify'd with as large Titles and, Priviledges 3S 
any other Parts of our Dominions and Territories, in that 
Region. Know, ye that we of our further Grace certain know- 
ledge & mere Motion have thought nt to annex the fame Tract 
of Ground and Territory unto the fame Province of Carolina 
and out. of the fulnefs of our. Royal Power <5c Prerogative. 
We do. for Us. Our. Heirs And Succellor's annex & unite the 
Same to the (aid Province of Carolina And for as much as 
we have made and ordain'd the aforefaid Edward Earl of Clar- 
endon George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven. 

2oo The TliJIory of the 

John Lord Berkley. Anthony Lord Afhley. Sir George Car- 
teret. Sir John Colleton & Sir William Berkley their Heirs and 
AffrVns the true. Lord's and Proprietors of all the Province or. 
Territory aforefaid Know, ye therefore moreover the we. re- 
pofino; efpecial truft <5c confidence in. their fidelity Wifdom. Juf- 
tice and Provident. Circumfpecticn for Us Our Heirs and Suc- 
ceflbr's do grant full and absolute Power by Vertue of thefc 
Prefents to them the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon. George 
Duke of Albemarle. William Earl of Craven. John Lord 
Berkley Anthony Lord Afhly Sir George. Carteret. Sir John. 
Colleton and Sir William Berkley and their Heir's & Afligns 
for the good & happy Government of the faid whole Province 
or Territory full Power and Authority to erect, conftitute & 
make feveral Counties. Baronies. & Colonies of & within the 
faid Provinces. Territories. Land's and Hereditaments in and by 
laid recited Letters Patents. & thefe Prefents granted or. men- 
tion'd to be granted as aforefaid with feveral and diftinct Juris- 
dictions Power's. Liberties and Priviledges. And alfo to Ordain, 
make and enact and under their Seals, to Publim any Law's and 
Conftitutions whatfoever. either appertaining to the Publick 
State of the faid whole Provinee or Territory, or of any diftinct 
or. Particular County, Barony, and. Colony of or within the 
Same, or to the Private utility of Particular Perfons. according 
to their beft difcretion, by & with the advice. Aflent & Approba- 
tion of the Freemen of the Said Province or Territory or of 
the Freemen of County. Barony or Colony, for which fuch 
Law or Conftitution mail be made or the greater Part of them 
or of their Delegates or Deputies, whom for the enacting of the 
faid Law's when as often as need fhall require We will that the 
faid Edward Earl of Clarendon. George. Duke of Albemarle 
William Earl of Craven John Lord. Berkley Anthony Lord 
Afhley Sir George Carterett, Sir John. Colleton k Sir William 
Berkley, their Heirs or Afligns. Shall from time to time, aflem- 
ble in Such Manner and form as to them fhall feem beft, and the 
fame Law's duly to Execute upon all People within the faid 
Provinces or. Territory. County Colony, or. Barony the Limits 
thereof for the time being, which fhall be Conftituted under the 
Power Sc Government of them, or any of them, either Sailing 
towards the faid Province or Territory of Carolina, or returning 
from thence towards. England, or any other of Our, or foreign 
Dominions, by Impofition of Penalties, Imprifonmcnt, or any 
other Punilhmcnt : Yea. if it fhall. be necdfull, and the Quality 

* Dividing Line. 201 

of the offence require it. by takeing away Member & Life, either 
by them the Said Edward. Earl of Ciarendon, George Duke of 
Albemarle. William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkley. An- 
thony Lord Afhley Sir George Carterett. Sir John Colleton Sz 
Sir William Berkley, and their Heirs or by them or their Depu- 
ties Lieutenants. Judges. Juftices. Magiftrates. or. Officers 
whatfoever as within the Said Province as at Sea, in fuch. Man- 
ner & form as unto the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon. George 
Duke of Albemarle. William Earl of Craven, John. Lord 
Berkley. Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George Carteret, Sir 
John Colleton, & Sir William Berkley, and their Heirs, fnall 
feem moil, convenient, Alfo, to remit, releafc, pardon and abolifh, 
whether before Judgement, or after, all Crimes and offences 
whatfoever. Againfl: the faid Law's ; and to do all and every 
other thing and things, which unto the Compleat eftablifhmcnt 
of Juftice, unto Courts, Sefiions & forms of Judicature and 
Manners of proceedings therein, do belong altho in thefe Pre- 
fents, exprefs mention is not. made thereof. & by Judges to him 
or them delegated to award procefs. hold pleas. & determine in 
all the faid Courts, & places of Judicature, all Actions, Suits, 
and — Caufes whatfoever, as well Criminal as. Civil, real, mix't 
perfonal. or of any other kind or. Nature whatfoever, which 
Law's So as aforefaid to, be publifh'd, Our. Pleafure is & we do 
enjoyn, require and. Command, {hall, be abfolutcly firm & availa- 
ble in Law ; and that all the leige People of Us. our Heirs and 
SuccefTors, within the faid Provinee or Territory, do obferve ec 
keep the fame inviolably in thcfe Parts. So far as they concern 
them, under the Pains & Penalties therein exprefPd or to be 
exprefT'd provided neverthelefs, that the faid Law's be confonant 
to Reafon, and as near as may be conveniently, agreeable to the 
Law's Sz Cuftoms of this our Realm of England. 

And. becaufe fuch Aflemblies of freeholder's cannot be fo 
fuddenly call'd as there may be Occafion to require the Same. 
we do therefore by thefe Prefents, give & Grant unto the laid 
Edward Earl of Clarendon George. Duke of Albemarle, William 
Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, 
Sir George. Carterett. Sir John Colleton, and Sir William 
Berkley, their Heirs k Afligns, by themfelves or their Magif- 
trates. in that Behalf, lawfully Authorized, full Power and Au- 
thority from time to time, to make 5: ordain fit and wholefome 
Orders & Ordinances, within the Province or. Territory afore- 
faid or any County, Barony or. Province of or within the lame, 

202 The Hi/lory of the 

to be kep't and obferv'd, as well for the keeping of the Peace 
as for the better Government of the People there abiding, & 
to publifh the fame to all to whom it may concern, which ordi- 
nances we do, by thefe Prefents. ftreightly charge and command 
to be inviolably obferv'd within the fame Province. Counties 
Territory's, Barony's &z Provinces under the Penalties therein 
exprefPd : So as Such Ordinances be reafonable Sz not repug- 
nant or contrary, but as near as may be agreeable to the Laws 
& Statutes of this our Kingdom, of England; and fo as the 
fame Ordinances do not extend to the binding, charging or 
taking away of the right or Intereft of any Perfon or. Perions 
in their freehold, Goods or. Chattels whatfoever, 

And to the end the faid Province or Territory, may be more 
happily encreaf'd by the Multitude of People referring thither 
& may likevvife be the more Strongly defended from the Incur- 
fions of Savages and other Enemies, Pirates Sz Robbers, There- 
fore, We for Us, Our Heirs and SuccelTor's, do give and grant, 
by thefe Prefents, Power. Licence and Liberty unto all the LeiVe 
People of Us, Our Heirs and Succeflbr's in our Kingdom 
of England Sz elfewhere, Within any other our Dominions, 
Wands, Colonies or. Plantations, (excepting thofe who (hall 
be efpecially forbidden) to tranfport themfelves & Families into 
the faid Province or Territory, with Convenient. Shipping Sz 
fitting Provifions & there to Settle themfelves, dwell and Inhabit, 
any Law, Act. Statute, Ordinance, or other thing to the con- 
trary, in any wife notwithstanding. 

And we will alio, and of our efpecial Grace, for us, Our 
Heirs, Sz Succeflbr's, do Streightly enjoyn, ordain constitute and 
command, that the Said Province or Territory, fliall be of our 
Allegiance ; & that all And Singular, the Subjects and. Leige Peo- 
ple of Us. Our. Heirs & Succeflbr's, tranfported or to be trans- 
ported, into the faid Province, Sz the Children of them, and fueh 
as mail decend from them, there born, or hereafter to be born, be, 
and mail be, Denizens Sz Leige People, of Us. our Heirs, and, 
Succeflbr's. of this our Kingdom of England, & be in all things, 
held, treated, and reputed as the Leige faithful 1 People, of Us, 
our Heirs and Succelfors. born within this our Said Kingdom, or 
any other of our Dominions, and may inherit, or otherwife pur- 
chafe & receive, take, hold, buy, & po fiefs, any Land's, Land's, 
Tenements, or Hereditaments, within the Said Places, 5c them 
may occupy, & enjoy, fell, alien, and bequeath, as likewife all 
Liberties, Franchifes & Priviledges of this our Kingdom, and of 

Dividing Line. 203 

other our Dominions aforefaid, may freely and quietly have, 
PofTefs, and enjoy as our Leige People born within the Same, 
wirhout the Moleftation, vexation, grievance or. Trouble, of 
Us. our Heirs and Succeflbrs, any A£\. Statute, Ordinance or 
Provifion to the contrary notwithstanding. 

And furthermore, that our Subjects of this our faid Kingdom 
of England, £ other our Dominions, may be the rather en- 
couraged to undertake this Expedition, with ready & cheerfull 
Means. Know, Ye, that We, of our cfpecial Grace, certain 
Knowledge, & mere Motion, do give & Grant by Vertue of the 
Prefents. as well to the faid. Edward Earl of Clarendon, George 
Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord 
Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George Carteret, Sir John 
Colleton & Sir William Berkley and their Heirs, as unto all 
others as (hall, from time to time, repair unto the faid Province 
or, Territory, with a purpofe to inhabit, there or to trade with 
the Native^ thereof, Fuli Liberty and Licence to trade & 
Freight in every Part whatsoever of Us, our. Heirs & Succef- 
for's, and into the faid Province of Carolina, by them, their 
Servants & Afligns, to tranfport all & Singular, their good's, 
Wares, and Merchandizes, as likewife all Sort of Grain what- 
foever, & any other thing whatfoever, necefTary for their food 
& cloathing, not prohibited by the Law's and Statutes of our 
Kingdom & Dominions, to be carried out of the fame, without 
any let or Moleftation of Us our Heirs, & Succeiiors, or of any 
other our Officers or Ministers whatfoever, Saving alio to Us, 
our Heirs, and SuccefTor's, the Cuftoms & other Duties & Pay- 
ments due for the faid Wares k Merchandizes, according to 
the feveral Rates of the Places from whence the fame fliall be 

We will alfo & by thefe Prefents for. Us. our Heirs Succef- 
fors, do give and grant Licence by this our Charter, unto the 
faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle 
William Earl of Craven. John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord. 
Afhley, Sir George Carteret Sir John Colleton and Sir William 
Berkley, their Heirs & Afligns, and to all the Inhabitants & 
Dwellers in the Province or Territory aforefaid, both Prefent 
and to come, full Power & abfolute Authority to import or 
unlade, by tlumfelves or their Servants. Factors or Afligns all 
Merchandizes & Goods whatfoever, that iliall arrife of the 
Fruits & Commodities of the faid Province, or Territory, either 
by Land or Sea, into any of the Parts of us, our Heirs & Sue- 

204 The llijlory of the 

ceffor's, in our Kingdom of England, Scotland, or Ireland, or 
otherwife, to difpofe of the faid goods, in the faid Parts, and if 
need be, within one year next after the unlading, to lade the 
faid Merchandizes k Good's again into the fame, or other Ships 
& to export the fame into any other Country's, either of our 
Dominions or. forreign, being in Amity with Us, our Heirs k 
Succcflbrs, fo as the reft of the Cuftomes, Subfidies & other 
Duties for the fame to Us, our Heirs & Succeflbrs, as the reft 
of Our Subjects, of this our Kingdom for the time being, fliall 
be bound to pay, Beyond which we will not that the Inhabitants 
of the faid Province or Territory, fhall be any way Chareed, 
Provided, Nevcrthelefs, and Our' Will k Pleafure is, and We 
have further, for the Confiderations aforefaid, of our efpecial 
Grace, certain Knowledge & Mere. Motion, given k Granted, 
& by thefe Prefents, for Us. our Heirs and SuccefTor's, do give 
& grant, unto the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke 
of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord. Berk- 
ley, Anthony Lord Alliley, Sir George Carteret, Sir John 
Colleton, & Sir William Berkley, their Heirs & Affigns, full & 
free Licence, Liberty, Power, & Authority, at any time or times 
from k after the feaft. of St. Micheal the Arch. Angel, which 
fliall be in the Year of our Lord Chrift, one Thoufand Six 
Hundred,- Jixty & Seven.; as well to import and bring into any 
our Dominions from the faid Province of Carolina, or any part 
thereof, thefeveral goods & Commodities herein after mention'd ; 
that is to fay, Silks ; Wines, Currants, Rayfons, Capers, Wax, 
Almonds, Oyl and Olives without paying or anfwering to us 
our Heirs & SucceiTbrs, any Cuftom, Irnpoft or other Duty, for, 
or in refpecl thereof, for and during the time and fpace of'feven 
Years, to Commence & be accompted from, and after the fir ft 
importation of four Tons of any the faid Goods in any one 
Bottom Ship or Veflel, from the (aid Province or Territory, 
into any of our Dominions, as alfo to export and carry out of 
any of our Dominions into the faid Province or Territory, 
Cuftom free, all . Sorts of Tools, which be ufeful or neceflary 
For the Planters there, in the Accommodation k Improvement 
ot the Premiies, anything before in thefe Prefents, contain'd, 
or any Law, A<3:, Statute, Prohibition, or any other Matter or 
Thing, heretofore had, made, enacted or provided in any, wife 

^ And. furthermore of our mere ample & efpecial Grace, certain 
Knowledge and mere motion, We do for Us, our Heirs, and Sue- 

Dividing Line. 205 

ceffors, grant unto the fold Edward Ear! of Clarendon, George 
Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berk- 
lev, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George Carteret, Sir John 
Colleton, & Sir William Berkley, their Heirs & Afiigns, full & 
abfolute Power and Authority to make erecSt and Conftitute 
within the Said Province or Territory, k the liles k Inlets 
aforefaid, Such & fo Many Sea Parts, Harbours, Creeks and 
other Places, for difcharge and unladeing of Goods & Merchan- 
dizes out of Ships, Boats and other Veffels, and for lading of 
them in fuch and fo many places & with fucli Jurifdictions, Pri- 
viledses & Franchifes, unto the Said Ports belonging, as to them 
mall feem mo ft expedient ; k that ail and Singular, the Ships, 
Boats, & other Veffels, which iriall come for Merchandizes and 
Trade into the faid Province or Territory, or mall depart out 
of the fame, (hall be laden and unladen at Such Ports only, as 
fhall be erected & conftituted by the laid Edward. Earl of Clar- 
endon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, 
John Lord Berkley, Anthony, Lord Afhley, Sir George. Car- 
teret. Sir John Colleton & Sir William Berkley, their Heirs & 
Affigns & not elfcwherc, any ufe, Cuftom, or anything to the 
contrary in any wife notwithstanding, 

And we do furthermore will Appoint & Ordain, & by thefe 
Prefents, for Us, our Heirs and Succeffors, do grant unto the 
faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, 
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord 
Afhley, Sir George Carteret, Sir John Colleton k Sir William 
Berkley their Heirs k Afiigns, that they the faid Edward Earl 
of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of 
Craven John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George 
Carteret, Sir John Colleton & Sir William Berkley, their Heirs 
& Ailigns, may from time to time forever, have and enjoy the 
Cuftoms and Subfidies in the Ports, Harbours, Creeks & other 
places within the Province aforefaid, payable for the Goods, 
Merchandizes, & Wares there Laded, or to be Laded or unla- 
ded, the faid Cuftoms to be reafonably Afleff'd to upon any 
Occalion by themfelves & by & with the confent of the free 
people, or the greater part of them, as aforefaid ; to whom we 
give Power by thefe Prefents, for Us, our Heirs & Succeffors, 
upon juft cause k in due proportion to affefs Sc impofe the fame. 

And further, of our efpecial Grace certain Knowledge & 
mere Motion, we have given, granted & confirm'd & by thefe 
Prefents for Us, our Heirs & Succeffors, do give, Grant & con- 

206 The Hijiory of the 

firm unto the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon. George Duke 
of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven John Lord. Berkley, 
Anthony Lord Afhlev, Sir George. Carteret, Sir John Colleton 
k Sir William Berkley, their Heirs and Affigns, full & abfolute 
Licence, Power & Authority, that they the faid Edward. Earl 
of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of 
Craven, John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George. 
Carteret, Sir John Colleton, & Sir William Berkley, their Heirs 
fe Affigns, from time to time, hereafter for ever, at his and 
their Will k pleafure, may Affign, alien, grant demife or en- 
feoff, the Premifes or any part or Parcell thereof to him or 
them, that {hall be willing to purchafe the fame ; and to Such 
perfon or perfons as they fhall think fit, to have and to hold to 
them the faid Perfon or Perfons, their Heirs & Affigns in Fee 
Simple or in fee Sayle or for the Term of Life or Lives, or 
Years to be held of them the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, 
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John 
Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George Carterett, 
Sir John Colleton, k Sir William Berkley, their Heirs & Af 
figns, by fuch rents, fe Services, and Cuiroms as mall feern fit 
to them the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of 
Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord, Berkley, 
Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George Carteret Sir John Colleton 
k Sir William Berkley, their Heirs & Affigns & not of Us, our 
Heirs h SucceiTbr's ; and to the fame Perfon and Perfons, k 
to all & every one of them, We do give & grant, by thefe 
prefents, for Us our Heirs and Succeffiors, Licence, Authority, 
& Power that fuch Perfon or Perfons may have and take the 
Premifes, or any Parcell thereof, of the faid Edward Earl of 
Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Cra- 
ven, John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George 
Carterett, Sir John Colleton k Sir William Berkley, their Heirs 
and Affigns, & the fame to hold to themfelves their Heirs or 
Affigns, in what Eftate of Inheritance foever, in Fee Simple, 
or in Fee Sayle or otherwife, as to them the faid Edward Earl 
of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of 
Craven, John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George, 
Carteret. Sir John Colleton & Sir William Berkley, their Heirs 
k Affigns, mail feem expedient. The Statute in the Parlia- 
ment of Edward, Son of King Henry, heretofore King of. 
England, our Prcdcceflbr, commonly call'd the Statute of Quia 
Emtores Terrar ; or any other Statute, Act, Ordinance, Ufe, 

Dividi?ig Line. 207 

Law, Cuftom, or any other Matter, Caufe or thing heretofore 
publifhcd or provided to the contrary in any wife notwith- 

And becaufe many perfons born & Inhabiting in the faid 
Province, for their Dcferts & Services may expect, k be capa- 
ble, of Marks of Honour & Favour, which in refpect of the 
great Diftance cannot conveniently be conferred by us, our 
Will & Pleafure therefore is k We do by thefe Prefents, give 
and grant unto the faid, Edward, Earl of Clarendon, George 
Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord 
Berkley, Anthony Lord Afliley, Sir George. Carterctt, Sir 
John Colleton. &: Sir William Berkley, their Meiis & Affigns, 
full Power & Authority to give k Confer unto k upon fuch of 
the Inhabitants of the faid Province or Territory, as they fhall 
think, do or fhall merit the fame fuch Marks of Favour, & 
Titles of Honour, as they mall think fit, fo as their Titles or 
Honours be not the fame as are enjoy'd by, or conferr'd upon 
any of the Subjects of this our Kingdom of England. 

And further alfo, we do by thefe prefents, for us, our Heirs 
& Succeffors, give and grant, Licence to them the faid Edward 
Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl 
of Craven, John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir 
George Carteret, Sir John Colleton, & Sir William Berkley, 
their Heirs & Affigns, full Power & Authority, Libert)- and 
Licence to erecL raife & Build within the (aid Province or 
Places aforefaid or any Part or Parts thereof, fuch <fe fo many 
P'orts, Fortrefles, Catties, Cities, Burroughs, Towns, Villages, 
or any other Fortifications whatfoever ; k the fame or any of 
them to fortify & furnifh with Ordnance Powder, Shott, Ar- 
mour, k all other Weapons, Ammunition k Habiliments of 
War, both defenfive & Offenfive, as fhall be thought fit and 
convenient for the fafety & Welfare of the faid Province, & 
Places, or any part, thereof, and the fame, or any of them, from 
time to time, as occafion mall require, to Difmantle, Disfurnifh, 
Demolifh & pull down ; And alfo to Place. Confiitute & Ap- 
point in, or over all, or any of the faid Caftles, forts, fortifica- 
tions, Cities Towns, & Places aforefaid, Governors, Deputy 
Governors, Magiltrates, Sheriffs, & other Officers, Civil and 
Military as to them fhall feem meet : and to the faid Cities, 
Burroughs, Towns, Villages, or any other place or places 
within the laid Province or Territory, to grant Letters, or 
Charters of Incorporations with all Liberties. Franchifes k Pri- 

208 The Hi/lory of ihe 

vileges requifite, or ufual, or to, or within this our Kingdom of 
England granted, or belonging : And in the fame Cities, Bur- 
roughs, Towns <fc other Places, to conftitute, erecl: & Appoint, 
Such & So many Markets, Marts, & Fairs, as fhall in that 
behalf be thought fit and neceiTary ; and further alfo, to Erecl 
& make in the Province or Territory aforefaid ; or any part 
thereof, So many Mannors with fuch Signories as to them {hall 
Seem Meet, & Convenient, & in every of the faid Mannors to 
have k to hold a Court-Baron with all things whatfoever, 
which to a Court-Baron do belong, & to have & to hold views 
of franck pledge, & Courts-Leet, for the confervation of the 
Peace, and better Government of thofe Parts, with fuch Limits, 
Jurifdiction dc Precincls, as by the faid Edward Earl of Claren- 
don. George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, 
John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George Car- 
terett, Sir John Colleton, & Sir William Berkley, or their Heirs, 
mall be appointed for that purpofe, with all things whatfoever, 
which to a Court-leet or view of Franck Pledge : do belong 
the fame Courts to be holden by Stewards, to be deputed, & 
authorized by the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon. George 
Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord. 
Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John 
Colleton & Sir \Villiam Berkley, or their Heirs, by the Lords 
of the Mannors & leets, for the time being, when the fame 
fhall be Ereaed, 

And becaufe that in fo remote a Country & fcituate amon^fl 
fo many barbarous Nations, the Invaiions as well of Salvages, 
as other Enemies. Pirates & Robbers may probably be fear'd ; 
Therefore we have given & for Us, our Heirs & Succeflbrs do 
give power by thefe prefers, unto the Said Edward. Earl of 
Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Cra- 
ven John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord. Afhley, Sir George. 
Carterett, Sir John Colleton & Sir William Berkley, their Heirs 
or Afligns, by themfelves, or their Captains, or other Officers 
to Levy, Muiter, & Train up all Sorts of Men, of what Con- 
dition foever, or wherefoever born, whether in the faid Province, 
or elfewhere, for the time being, And to make War & purfue 
the Enemies aforefaid, as well by Sea, as by Land ; Yea even 
without the Limits of the faid Province, and by God's Affift- 
ance, to Vanquish, and take them & being taken, to put them 
to Death by the Law of War, <fc to fave them at their pleafure ; 
and to do all & every other thing which to the Charge & Office 

Dividing Line. 209 

of a Captain General of an Army do belong, or hath accuf- 
tom'd to belong, as fully & freely as any Captain General of an 
Army hath had the fame. 

Alfo our Will & pleafure is, & by this our Charter, We do 
give & grant unto the faid. Edward Earl of Clarendon, George 
Duke of Albemarle, "William Earl of Craven, John Lord 
Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John 
Colleton, & Sir William Berkley, their Heirs and Aifigns, full 
power & Liberty & Authority in cafe of Rebellion ; Tumult, 
or -Sedition (if any fhould happen which God forbid) either 
upon the Land within the Province aforefaid, or upon the main 
Sea, in makeing a Voyage thither, or returning from thence, by 
him & themfelves, their Captains, Deputies, or Officers, to be 
Authorized under his or their Seals for that purpofc, To whom 
alfo for Us, our Heirs & Succelfors, we do give & grant by 
thefe prefents, full power & Authority to exercife Martial Law, 
againfr. Mutinous & Seditious perfons of thofe parts, Such as 
fhall refufe to fubmit themfelves to their Government-, or lhail 
refufe to fcrve in the Wars, or fhall fly to the Enemy, or for- 
fake their Colours or Enligns or be Loytercrs or Stragglers, or 
otherwife howfoever offending againfr. law, Cuftom, or Military 
Difcipline, as freely & in as ample Manner & form as anv Cap- 
tain General of an Army, by Vertue of his Office, might, or 
hath accuitorn'd to uk the fame. 

And our further pleafure is & by thefe prefents, for Us, our 
Heirs & Succeflbrs, We do grant unto the faid Edward Earl of 
Clarendon. George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Cra- 
ven, John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley." Sir George 
Carteret. Sir John Colleton & Sir William Berkley, their Heirs 
& Afligns, & to the Tenants & Inhabitants of the Said Province, 
or Territory, both prefent & to come & to every of them, that 
the Said Province or Territory, & the Tenants, & Inhabitants 
thereof, mail not from henceforth, be held or reputed any 
member or part of any Colony Whatfoevcr, in America or 
elfewhcre ; Now tranfported or made ; nor (hall be depending 
on or Subject to their Government in any thing, but be abfo- 
lutely feperated & divided from the fame. And our pleafure is, 
by thefe prefents, that they be Seperated, and that they be Sub- 
ject immediately to our Crown of England, as depending 
thereof for ever, And that the Inhabitants of the faid Province 
or Territory, nor any of them, fhall at any time hereafter be, 
Compell'd or compellable, or be any way's Subject, or liable to 

2 1 o The Ilijlcry of the 

appear or anfvver to any Matter, fuit, caufe, or Plaint whatfo- 
ever, out of the Province or Territory aforcfaid, in any other 
of our Iflands Collony's or Dominions, in America, or elfe- 
where other than in our Realm of England and Dominion of 
Wales. And becaufe it may happen, that fome of the People 
and Inhabitants of the faid Province, cannot in their private 
opinions conform to the publick exercife of Religion according 
to the Liturgy, Forms & Ceremonies of the Church of Eng- 
land, or Subfcribe the Oaths & Articles, made & eftablifhcd in 
that behalf, and for that the fame, by reafon of the remote dif- 
tances of thofe Places will as we hope, be no Breach of the 
unity and conformity, eitablifhhed in tins nation. Our Will & 
Pleafure therefore is, & we do by thefe prefents for us, our 
Heirs & SucceiTbrs, give & grant unto the faid Edward Earl of 
Clarendon, George. Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Cra- 
ven, John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir Gcoige, 
Carterett, Sir John. Colleton & Sir William Berkley, their 
Heirs & Afligns, full & free Licence, Liberty, & Authority, by 
fuch ways & Means as they fhall think fit, to give and grant 
unto fuch Perfon and Pcrfons, Inhabiting, & being within the 
faid Province or Territory, hereby or by the faid recited Letters 
Patents, mention'd to be granted as aforcfaid, or any Part 
thereof, fuch Indigencies & Difpenfations in that behalf, for & 
during fuch time & times, & with fuch Limitations and Reftric- 
tions as they the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George 
Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord 
Berkley, Anthony Lord, Afhley, Sir George Carterett Sir 
John Colleton & Sir William Berkley, their Heirs & Afligns, 
fliall in their difcretion think fit & reafonable, And that no 
Perfon or Peribns, unto whom fuch Liberty fhall be given, 
fliall be any way molened, puniftied, difquieted, or called in 
queftion for any differences in Opinion or Practice, in Matters 
of Religious Concernment, who do not actually difturh the 
civil Peace of the Province, County or Colonv, that they fliall 
make their abode in. But all & every fuch Perfon k Peribns, 
may from time to time, k at all times, freely & Quietly have 
& enjoy his & their Judgments, & Confidences in Matters of 
Religion throughout all the laid Province, or Colony, they 
behaveing themlelvcs peaceably, & not ufeing this Liberty to 
Licentioufnefs, nor to the Civil Injury, or outward difturbance 
of others, any Law, Statute, or Claufe contain'd, or to be con- 

Dividing Line. 2 1 1 

tain'd, Ufage or Cuftcms of our Realm of England to the 
contrary hereof in any wife notwithstanding 

And in cafe it fhall happen, that any doubts or queftions 
fhou'd arife concerning the true fence & understanding of any 
word, claufe, or Sentence, contain'd in this our Prefent, Char- 
ter, We will, Ordain, and command, that at all times, & in all 
things fuch Interpretations be made thereof, & allow'd in all k 
ever) of our Courts whatfoever, as lawfully may be adjudged 
molt advantageous & favourable to the faid Edward, Earl of 
Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Cra- 
ven John Lord Berkley, Anthony Lord Afhley, Sir George 
Carterett, Sir John Colleton & Sir William Berkley, their 
Heirs & Affigns, although Exprefs. mention &c 

Witnefs our felf at Weftminfter, the thirtieth day of June, 
in the Seventeenth Year of our Reign 

Per. ipfum Regem 

At the Court of St. James s the \fi day of Marcb> 1 7 1 o. — 
Prefent^ 'The Queen s moft Excellent Majefty in Council. 

Upon reading this day at the Board a Reprefentation from the 
Rt Honble the Lords Commiflioners for trade & Plantations; in 
the Words following : In purfuance of your Majefty's Pleafiire, 
Commiffioners have been appointed on the Part of your Majef- 
ty's Colony of Virginia, as likewife on the Part of the Province 
of Carolina, for the fettling the Bounds between thofe Govern- 
ments ; And they have met feveral times for that puipofe, but 
have not agreed upon any one Point thereof, by reafon of the 
trifleing delays of the Carolina Commiflioners, <fc of the many 
difficulties by them raif'd in relation to the proper Obfervations 
& furvey they were to make. However, the Commiflioners for 
Virginia have deliver'd to your Majelty's Lieut Governor of 
that Colony an Account of their proceedings, which Account 
has been under the Confideration of your Majefty's Council of 
Virginia, «ic they have made a Report thereon to the laid Lieut 
Governor, who haveing lately tranfmitted unto us a Copy of 
that Report, we take leave humbly to lay the Subltance thereof 
before your Majefty, which is as follows : 

That the Commiili oners of Carolina are both of them Per- 
fons engag'd in lnterelt to obitriuSt the Settling the Boundarys 
between that Province and the Colony of Virginia j for one of 

2 1 2 The Hijlory of the 

them has for fcveral Years been Surveyor General of Carolina 
has acquired to himfelf great Profit by furveying Lands within 
the controverted Bounds, & has taken up feveral Traces of Land 
in his own Name, & fold the fame to others, for which he ftands 
{till oblig'd obtain Patents from the Government of Carolina. 
The other of them is at this time Surveyor General, & hath the 
fame Profpect of advantage by making future furvevs within the 
faid Bounds. That the Behavior of the Carolina 'Commifii on- 
ers has tended viiibly to no other End than to protract and 
defeat the Settling this Affair : and particularly Mr. Mofeley 
has uf'd fo many Shifts & Excufes to difappoint all Conferences 
with the Commiffioners of Virginia, as plainly fhew his Averiion 
to proceed in a Bufineis that tends fo manifeftly to his difadvan- 
tage. His prevaricating on this occaiion has been fo undifcreet 
and fo unguarded, as to be difcover'd in the prefence of the 
Lieut Governor of Virginia. He ftarted fo many objections to 
the Powers granted to the Commiffioners of that Colony, with 
defign to render their conferences ineffectual, that his Joint 
Commiffioner cou'd hardly find an excufe for him. And when 
the Lieut Governor had with much adoe prevail'd with the faid 
Mr. Mofeley to appoint a time for meeting the Commiffioners 
of Virginia, & for bringing the neceifary Inftruments to take 
the Latitude of the Bounds in difpute, which Inftruments he 
owned were ready in Carolina, he not only fail'd to comply 
with his own appointment, but after the Commiffioners of Vir- 
ginia had made a Journey to his Houfe, and had attended him 
to the Places proper for obferving the Latitude, he wou'd not 
take the trouble of carrying his own Inftrumcnt, but contented 
himfelf to find fault with the Quadrant produc'd by the Virginia 
Commiffioners, tho that Inftrument had been approv'd by the 
bell: Mathematicians, and is of univerfal Ufe. From all which 
it is evident how little hopes there are of Settling the Boundarys 
above-mention'd, in concert with the prefent Commiffioners for 
Carolina. That tho the Bounds of the Carolina Charter are 
in exprefs words limitted to Weyanoak Creek, lyintg in or about 
36 30' of Northern Latitude, yet the Commiffioners for Caro- 
lina have not by any of their Evidences pretended to prove any 
fuch Place as Weyanoak Creek, the amount of their Evidence 
reaching no further than to prove which is Weyanoak River, & 
even that is contradicted by affidavit taken on the part of Vir 
giuia ; by which affidavits it appears that, before the Date of 
the Carolina Charter to this day, the place they pretend to be 

Dividing Line. 213 

Weyanoak River was, & is ftill, called Nottoway River. But 
fuppofing the fame had been called Weyanoak River, it can be 
nothing to their purpofe, there being a great difference between 
a River & a Creek. Befides, in that Country there are divers 
Rivers & Creeks of the fame Name, as Potomeck River & Po- 
tomeck Creek, Rappahannock River, & Rappahannock Creek, 
& Several others, tho there arc many Miles' diftance between 
the mouths of thefe Rivers and the mouths of thefe Creeks. 
It is alfo obfervable, that the Witneffes on the Part of Carolina 
are all very Ignorant perfons, & mofl of them of ill fame & 
Reputation, on which Account they had been forced to remove 
from Virginia to Carolina. Further, there appeared to be many 
contradictions in their Teilirnonys, whereas, on the other hand, 
the witneffes to prove that the Right to thole Lands is in the 
Government of Virginia are Perfons of good Credit, their 
knowledge of the Lands in queftion is more ancient than any of 
the Witneffes for Carolina, & their Evidence fully corroborated 
by the concurrent Teltimony of the Tributary Indians. And 
that right is farther confirm' d by the Obfervations lately taken 
of the Latitude in thofe parts, by which tis plain, that the Creek 
proved to be Weyanoak Creek by the Virginia Evidences, & 
fometimes call'd Wicocon, anfwers beft to the Latitude de- 
fcribed in the Carolina Charter, for it lys in 36 40', which is 
ten Minutes to the Northward of the Limits defcribed in the 
Carolina grant, Whereas Nottoway River, lys exactly in the 
Latitude of 37°, and can by no conftruction be fuppof'd to be 
the Boundary defcribed in their Charter ; So that upon the 
whole Matter, if the Commiflioners of Carolina had no other 
view than to clear the juft right of the Proprietors, fuch unde- 
niable Dcmonftrations wou'd be Sufficient to convince them ; 
but the faid Commiflioners gave too much Caufe to fufpect that 
they mix their own private Intereft. with the Claim of the Pro- 
prietors, Sc for that reafon endeavor to gain time in order to 
obtain Grants for the Land already taken up, and alfo to fecure 
the reft on this occailon, we take notice, that they proceed to 
furvey the Land in difpute, notwithstanding the affurance given 
by the Government of Carolina to the Contrary by their letter 
of the 17th of June, 1707, to the Government of Virginia, by 
which letter they promifed that no lands fhou'd be taken up 
within the controverted bounds till the fame were fettled. 

Whereupon we humbly propofe, that the Lords Proprietors 
be acquainted with the foregoing Complaint of the trifleing 

214 The Hijlory of the 

delays of their Commiflioners, which delays tis reasonable tu 
believe have proceeded from the felf-Intereft of thofe Commif- 
fioners, and that therefore your Majefty's pleafure be fignify'd to 
the faid Lords Proprietors, that by the firft Opportunity they 
fend Orders to their Governour or Commander in Chief of 
Carolina for the time being, to ifiiie forth a new Commiffion, to 
the purport of that lately iilucd, thereby conftituting two other 
Perfons, not having any perfonal Intereft in, or claim to, any of 
the Land lying within the Boundary's in the room of Edward 
Mofeley & John Lawfon. The Carolina Commiflioners to be 
appointed being ftrictly required to finiih their Survey, & to 
make a return thereof in conjunction with the Virginia Commif- 
fioners, within fix months, to be computed from the time, that due 
notice fhall be given by your Majefty's Lieut Governor of Vir- 
ginia to the Governor or Commander in Chief of Carolina, of the 
time & place, which your Majefty's faid Lieut Governor mall ap- 
point for the firft meeting of the Commiflioners on one part & the 
other. In order whereunto we humbly offer, that directions be 
fent to the faid Lieut Governor, to give fuch Notice accordingly ; 
& if after Notice fo given, the Carolina Commiflioners fhall 
refufe or neglect to Join with thofe on the part of Virginia, in 
making fuch furvey, as likewife a Return thereof within the 
time before mention'd ; that then and in fuch Cafe the Com- 
miflioners on the part of Virginia be directed to draw up an 
Account of the proper obfervations and Survey which they 
fhall have made for afcertaining the Bounds between Virginia & 
Carolina, and to deliver the fame in Writing under their Hands 
and Seals to the Lieut Governor and Council of Virginia, to 
the end the fame may be laid before your Majefty, for your 
Majefty's final Determination therein, within, with regard to 
the Settling of thofe Boundarys ; the Lords Proprietors haveing, 
by an Inftrument under their Hands, fubmitted the fame to 
Your Majefty's royal determination, which inftrument, dated in 
March, 1708, is lying in this Office. 

And laftly, we humbly propofc, that your Majefty's further 
pleafure be fignifyd to the faid Lords Proprietors, and in like 
manner to the Lieut Governor of Virginia, that no Grants be 
palPd by either of thofe Governments of any of the Lands 
lying within the controverted Bounds, until fuch Bounds fhall 
be afcertain'd and fettled as aforefaid, whereby it may appear 
whether thofe Lands do of Right belong to your Majefty, or to 
the Lords Proprietors of Carolina. 

Dividing Line. 215 

Her Majcfty in Council, approveing of the faicl Reprefeuta- 
tion, is pleaf'd to order, as it is hereby ordered, that the Rt 
Honble the Lords Com mifii oners for Trade & Plantations Do 
fignifye her Majefty's pleafure herein to her Majefty's Lieut 
Governor or Commander in Chief of Virginia for the time 
being, and to all Perfons to whom it may belong, as is propof'd 
by their Lordfhips in the faid Reprefentation, and the Rt Honble 
the Lords Proprietors of Carolina are to do what on their part 
does appertain. 

Edw Southwell. 

Proposals for determining the Controverfy relating to the 
Bounds let-ween the Governments of Virginia and North 
Carolina, rnojl humbly offered for his Majefty s Royal 
Approbation, and for the Confent of the Rt Honble the 
Lords Proprietors of Carolina. 

Forafmuch as the difpute between the faid two Governments 
about their true Limits continues ftill, notwithstanding the feveral 
meetings of the CommilHoners, and all the proceedings of many 
Years pad, in order to adjuft that affair, h feeing no fpecdy De- 
termination is likelv to enfue, unlefs fome Medium be found out, 
in which both Partys may incline to acquiefce, wherefore both 
the underwritten Governors having met, and coniider'd the pre- 
judice both to the King & the Lords Proprietors' Intereft, by 
the continuance of this conteft, and truly endeavouring a De- 
cifion, which they Judge comes neareft the Intention of Royal 
Charter granted to the Lords Proprietors, do, with the advice Sz 
confent of their refpeclive Councils, propofe as follows. 

That from the mouth of Corotuck River or Inlet, h fetting 
the Compafs on the North Shoar, thereof a due Weft Line be 
run & fairly mark'd, h if it happen to cut Chowan River, be- 
tween the mouths of Nottoway River and Wicocon Creek, 
then fhall the fame direct Courfe be continued towards the 
Mountains, and be ever deem'd the Sole divideing line between 
Virginia & Carolina. 

That if the faid Weft Line cuts Chowan River to the South- 
ward of Wicocon Creek, then from point of Interfection the 
Bounds fhall be allow'd to continue up the middle of the faid 

21 6 The Hiftory of the 

Chowan River to the middle of the Enterance into the faid 
Wicocon Creek, and from thence a due Weft Line (hall divide 
the faid two Governments. 

That if a due Weft Line fliall be found to pafs through 
Iflands or to cut out fmall Slips of Land, which might much 
more conveniently be included in one Province or the other by 
Natural Water Bounds, In fiich Cafes the Pcrfons appointed 
for runing the Line fliall have power to fettle Natural Bounds, 
provided the Commiflioners of both Sides agree thereto, and 
that all fuch Variations from the Weft Line, be particularly 
Noted in the Maps or Plats, which they fhall return, to be put 
upon the Records of both Governments, all which is Humbly 
fubmitted by 

Chales Eden. 
A. Spots wood. 

Order of the King and Council upon the foregoing Pro- 
pofals y At the Court of St. James's the i%th day of 
March, 1729. Prsfent, the King's m oft Excellent Ma- 
jefty in Council. 

Whereas it has been reprefentcd to his Majefty at the Board, 
that for adjufting the difputes, which have Subiifted for many 
Years paft, between the Colonys of Virginia and North Caro- 
lina, concerning f heir true Boundarys, the late Governors of the 
faid colonvs did iume time fince agree upon certain Propofals 
for regulating the faid Boundarys for the future, to which Pro- 
pofals the Lords Proprietors of Carolina have given their alfent ; 
And whereas the faid Propofals were this day prefented to his 
Majefty as proper for his Royal Approbation, 

His Majefty is thereupon pleaPd, with the Advice of his 
Privy Council, to approve oi the faid Propofals, a copy whereof 
is hereunto annex't, and to order, as it is hereby order'd, that 
the Governor or Commander in Chief of the Colony of Vir- 
ginia, do fettle the faid Boundarys, in conjunction with the 
Governor of North Carolina, agreeable to the faid Propofals. 

Edward Southwell. 

Dividing Line. 217 

The Lieut Governor of Virginia s Commtflion in obedience 
to His Majeftys Order. 

George the fecond, by the Grace of God, of great Britain, 
France and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, to our trufty 
and well beloved William Byrd, Richard Fitz-William, and 
William Dandridge, Efqrs., members of our council of the 
Colony and Dominion of Virginia, Greeting : Whereas our late 
Royal' Father of Blefled memory was gracioufly pleaPd, by 
Order in his Privy Council, bearing date the 28 day of March 
1727, to approve of certain Propofals agreed upon by Alexander 
Spotfwood, Efqr. late Lieut Governor of Virginia, on the one 
part, and Charles Eden Efqr. late Governoor of the Province of 
North Carolina, for determining the Controverfy relating to the 
Bounds between the laid two^ Governments, and was farther 
pleafed to dire£t and Order, that the laid Boundarys fhoud be 
laid out & fettled agreeable to the (aid Propofals. Know ye, 
therefore, that repofing fpecial truit and confidence in your 
Ability 5c Provident circumfpection, have aflign'd, conrtituted 
& appointed, & by thefe prefents do aflign, confiutute Sz appoint 
you & every of you jointly & feverally, our Commiflioners for 
& on behalf of our Colony & Dominion of Virginia, to meet 
the commiilioners appointed or to be appointed on the part of 
the Province of North Carolina, and in conjunction with them 
to caufe a Line or Lines of Divifion to be run and markt, to 
divide the faid two Governments according to the propofals 
above-mention'd, h the order of our late Royal Father, Copies 
of both which you will herewith receive, and we do further 
give and grant unto you, and in cafe of the Death or abfence of 
any of you, fuch of Vou as (hall be prefent, full power and Au- 
thority to treat h agree with the faid Commiilioners of the 
Province of North Carolina on fuch rules and Methods as you 
fhall Judge molt expedient for the adjufting and finally deter- 
mining all difputes or controverfies which may arife, touching 
any 1 (lands or other fmall Slips of Land which may happen to 
be interfered or cut off" by the dividing Line aforeiaid, and 
which may with more conveniency be included in the One 
Province or the other by natural water bounds, agreeable to the 
propofals aforcmeniiou'd, and generally to do and perform all 
matters and things requifite for the final determination and Set- 
tlement of the laid Boundarys, according to the faid Propofals. 

2 1 8 ^he Bifiory of the 

And to the end our Service herein may not be reappointed 
through the refufal or delay of the Commiflioners for the Pro- 
vince of North Carolina, to a& in Conjunction with you in 
fettling the Boundarys aforefaid, we do hereby give & grant 
unto you, or fuch of you as mail be prcfent at the time and 
place appointed for running the dividing Line aforefaid, full 
power and Authority to caufe the faid Line to be run and mark'd 
out, conformable to the faid propofals, having due regard to the 
doing equal Juftice to Us, and to the Lords Proprietors of Caro- 
lina, any refufal, difegreement, or oppofition of the faid Com- 
miifioners of North ^Carolina notwithftanding. And in that 
cafe we do herebv require you to make a true report of your 
proceedings to our Lieut Governor, or Commander in Chier 
of Virginia, in order to be laid before us for our approbation, 
and final determination herein. And in cafe any Perfon or Per- 
fons whatfoever fhall prefume to difturb, Moleft or refill you, or 
any of the Officers or Perfcns by your direaion, in running the 
faid Line, and executing the Powers herein given yon, we do 
by thefe prefents Give and Grant unto you, or fuch of you as 
fhall be attending the fervice aforefaid, full power & Authority 
by Warrant under your or any of your hands and Seals, to 
order and command all and every the Militia Officers in our 
counties of Princefs Anne, Norfolk, Nanfemond, h Ifle of 
Wiffbt or other the adjacent Counties, together with the Sheriff 
of each of the laid Counties, or either of them, to raife the 
Militia & pofle of the faid Several Counties, for the removing 
all force and oppofition, which fhall or may be made to you in 
the due Execution of this our Commifiion, & we do hereby 
will and require, as well the Officers of the faid militia, as all 
other our Officers cX loving Subjects within the laid Counties, 
& all others whom it may concern, to be obedient, aiding & 
affifting unto you in all v<: Singular the Premifes. And we do 
in like manner command & .require you, to caufe fair Maps & 
defcriptions of the faid Dividing Line, and the remarkable 
places through which it fhall pals, to be made and return' d to 
our Lieut Governor or Commander in Chief of our faid 
Colony for the time being, in order to be entered on Record in 
the proper Offices within our (aid Colony. Provided that you 
do not, by colour of this our Commifiion, take upon you or 
determine any Private man's property, in or to the Lands which 
{hall by the faid dividing Line be included within the Limits of 
Virginia, nor of any other matter or thing that doth not relate 

Dividing Line. 219 

immediately to the adjusting, fettling h final Determination of 
the Boundary aforefaid, conformable to the Propofals hereinbe- 
fore mentioned, and not otherwife. In Witnefs whereof- we 
have caufed thefe prefents to be made. Witnefs our trufty and 
well beloved William Gooch, Efqr. our Lieut Governor & 
Commander in Chief of our Colony & Dominion of Virginia, 
under the feal of our laid Colony, at Williamfburgh the 14th 
day of December, 1727, in the firft Year of our Reign. 

William Gooch. 

The Governour of N. Carolina s Commijjion in Obedience 
to His Majefty s Order. 

Sir Richard PJverard, Baronet, Governor, Captain General, 
Admiral, and Commander in Chief of the faid Province: To 
Chriftopher Gale Efqr. Chief Juftice, John Lovick, Efqr., Se- 
cretary, Edward Mofeley, Efqr., Surveyor General & William 
Little, Efqr., Attorney General, Greeting : Whereas many dif- 
putes & differences have formerly been between the Inhabitants 
of this province and thofe of his Majefty's Colony of Virginia, 
concerning the Boundary's and Limits between the faid two 
Governments, which having been duly confidcred by Charles 
Eden, Efqr., late Governor of this Province, and Alexander 
Spotfwood, Efqr., late Governor of Virginia, they agreed to 
certain propofals for determining the faid controversy, & humbly 
ofler'd the fame for his Majefty's Roval Approbation, and the 
confent of the true & abfolute Lords Proprietors of Carolina, 
and his Majefty having been pleaf'd to signify his Royal approba- 
tion of thofe propofals (confent'd unto by the true and abfolute 
Lords Proprietors of Carolina) and given directions for adjusting 
& fettling the Boundarys as near as may be to the faid Pro- 
pofals : 

J, therefore, repofing efpecial truft and confidence in you, the 
faid Chriftopher Gale, John Lovick, Edward Mofeley and 
William Little, to be CommiffionefS, on the part of the true 
and abfolute Lords Proprietors, and that you in conjunction 
with fuch Commiffioners as (hall be nominated for Virginia, ufe 
your utmoft Endeavours, and take all neceflary care in adjusting 
and fettling the faid boundarys, by drawing fuch a (lifting Line 
or Lines of Divifion between the faid two Provinces, as near 

220 The Hi/lory of the 

as reafonable you can to the Prdpofkls made by the two former 
Governours, and the InftrucTions herewith given you. Given 
at the Council Chamber in Edenton, under my hand, and the 
Seal of the Colony, the 21ft day of February, anno Dom 1727, 
and in the firfl year of the Reign of our fovereign Lord, King 
George the Second. 

Richard Everard. 

The ¥ rot eft of the Carolina CommiJJi 'oners, againft our' 
Proceeding on the Line without them. 

We the Underwritten CommiiTioners for the Government of 
N. Carolina, in conjunction with the Commiflioners on the 
part of Virginia, having run the Line for the divifion of the 
two Colonys from Corotuck Inlet, to the South Branch 01 
Roanoak River \ being in the whole about 170 Miles, and near 
50 Aliles without the Inhabitants, being of Opinion we had 
run the Line as far as would be requiiite for a long time, Judged 
the carrying it farther would be a needlefs charge and trouble. 
And the Grand Debate which had fo long Subfifted between 
the two Governments, about Wyanoke River or Creek, being 
fettled at our former meeting in the Spring, when we were 
ready on our parts to have gone with the Line to the utmoft 
Inhabitants, which if it had been done, the Line at any time 
after might have been continued at an eafy expenfe by a Sur- 
veyor on each fide ; and it at any time hereafter there mou'd be 
occafion to carry the Line on further than we have now run it, 
which we think will not be in an Age or two, it may be done 
in the fame ealy manner, without the great Expence that now 
attends it. And on a Conference of all the CommiiTioners, we 
have communicated our fentiments thereon, and declar'd our 
Opinion, that we had gone as far as the Service required, and 
thought proper to proceed no farther ; to which it was anfwered 
by the CommiiTioners for Virginia, that they Should not regard 
what we did, but if we debited, they wou'd proceed without 
us. But we, conceiving by his Majefty's Order in Council 
they were directed to Act in conjun&ion with the CommiiTion- 
ers appointed for Carolina, & having accordingly run the Line 
jointly lo far, and Exchanged Plans, thought they cou'd not 
carry on the Bounds fingly ; but that their proceedings without 

Dividing Line. 221 

us wou'd be irregular & invalid, and that it wou'd he no Bound- 
ary, and thought proper to enter our Diflent thereto. Where- 
fore, for the reafons aforefaid, in the name of His Excellency 
the Lord Palatine, and the reft- of the true and abfolute Lords 
proprietors of Carolina, we do hereby diflent and Difallow of 
any farther proceedings with the Bounds without our Concur- 
rence, and purfuant to our Inftru£tions do give this our Dissent 
in Writing. 

Edward Mosely. 

Will Little. 

C. Gale. 
OSiober ytk 9 1728. J. Lovick. 

The Anjwer of the Virginia Co?nmiffwners to the. foregoing 


Whereas, on the 7th of October laft, a paper was deliver'd 
to us by the Cornmiffioners of N. Carolina, in the Stile of a 
Proteft, againft our carrying any farther, without them, the 
dividing Line between the 2 Governments, we, the underwritten 
Cornmiffioners on the part of Virginia, having maturely con- 
fidered the reafons offer'd in the faid Protest, why thofe 
Gentlemen retir'd fo foon from that Service, beg leave to return 
the following anft ver : 

They are pleaf'd in the firft place to alledge, by way of Rjsa- 
fon, that having run the Line near 50 Miles beyond the Inhabit- 
ants, it was Sufficient for a long time, in their Opinion for an 
Age or two. To this we anfwer that, by breaking off fo foon, 
they did but imperfectly obey his Majefty's Order, aflented to 
by the Lords Proprietors. The plain meaning of that Order 
was, to afcertain the Bounds betwixt the two Governments as 
far towards the Mountains as we cou'd, that neither the King's 
Grants may hereafter encroach on the Lords Proprietors', nor 
theirs on the Right of his Majefty. And tho the diftance 
towards the great Mountains be not precifely determin'd, yet 
furely the Weft line fhou'd be carry'd as near them as may be, 
that both the King's Lands and thofe of their Lordfhips, may 
be taken up the falter, and that his Majefty's Subjects may as 
foon as poffible extend themfelves to that Natural Barrier. This 
they will certainly do in a few Years, when they know diftinctly 
in which Government they, may enter for the Land, as they 

222 The Hijlory of the 

have already done in the more northern Parts of Virginia. So 
that 'tis Strange the Carolina Commifti oners fliould aifirm, that 
the diftancc only of 50 miles above the Inhabitants wou'd be 
fuflicient to cauy the Line for an Age or two, efpeeiallv con- 
fidcring that, two or three days before the date of their Proteft, 
Mr. Mayo had enter'd with them for 2000 Acres of Land, 
within 5 Miles of the Place where they left off. Befides, if we 
refle£t on the richnefs of the Soil in thofe parts, & the conveni- 
ence for Stock, wc may foretell, without the Spirit of Divina- 
tion, that there' will be many Settlements higher than thofe 
Gentlemen went, in lefs than ten Years, and Perhaps in half 
that time. 

Another reafon mentipn'd in the Proteft for their retiring lb 
foon from the Service is, that their going farther wou'd be a 
needlefs charge and Trouble. And they alledge that the reft 
may be done by one Surveyor on a fide, in an eafy manner, 
whenever it (hall be thought necellary. 

To this we anfwer, that Frugality for the Public is a rare 
virtue, but when the public Service muft Suffer by it, it degene- 
rates into a Vice. And this will ever be the Cafe when Gen- 
tlemen Execute the orders of their Superiors by halves, but 
had the Carolina CommiiTtoners been fincerely frugal for their 
Government, why did they carry out Provifions Sufficient to 
fupport them and their Men for ten Weeks, when they intended 
not to tarry half that time? This they muft own to be true, 
fince they brought icoo lbs. of Provifions along with them. 
Now, after Co great an Expence in their preparations, it had 
been no mighty Addition to their Charge, had they endured the 
Fatigue 5 or 6 Weeks longer. It wou'd at moft have been no 
more than they muft be at, whenever they fmiih their Work, 
even tho they ihou'd fancy it proper to truft a matter of that 
confequence to the Management of one Surveyor. Such a one 
muft have a Number of Men along with him, both for his 
affiftance and Defenfe, and thofe Men muft have Provifions to 
Support them. 

Thefe are all the reafons thefe Gentlemen think fit to mention 
in their proteft, tho they had in truth a more Powerful argument 
for retiring fo ' abruptlv, which, becaufe they forgot, it will be 
neighbourly to help them out. The provifions they intended to 
bring along with them, for want of Horfes to carry them, were 
partly droppt by the way, & what they cou'd bring was huf- 
banded [0 ill, that after 18 days, (which was the whole time we 

'Dividing Line. 223 

had them in our Company,) they had no more left, by their own 
confeilion, than two Pounds of Bifcuit for each Man, to carry 
them home. However, tho this was an unanfwerable Reafoii 
for Gentlemen for leaving the Bufinefs unfinifht, it was none 
at all for us, who had at that time Bread Sufficient for 7 Weeks 
longer. Therefore, left their want of Management might put 
a flop to his Majefty's Service, & fruftrate his Royal intentions, 
we judg'd it our Duty to proceed without them, and have ex- 
tended the Dividing Line fo far Weft as to leave the great 
Mountains on each hand to the Eaftward of us. And this we 
have done with the fame fidelity & exaclnefs as if the Gentle- 
men had continued with us. Our furveyors (whofe Integrity I 
am pcrfwaded they will not call in Oueftion) continued to Act 
under the fame Oath, which they had done from the beginning. 
Yet, notwithstanding all this, if the Government of N. Carolina 
fhou'd not hold itfelf bound by that part of the Line which we 
made without the Alii fiance of the Comrnijfioners, yet we fhall 
have this benefit in it at leaft, that his Majefty will know how 
far his Lands reach towards the South, & confequcntly where 
his Subjects may take it up, & how far they may be granted 
without Injuftice to the Lords Proprietors. To this we may 
alfo add, that having the Authority of our Commiilion, to act 
without the Commiffioners of Carolina, in Cafe of their difa- 
greement or refufal, we thought ourfelvcs bound upon their 
Retreat to finim the Line without them, left his Majefty's Ser- 
vice might Sutler by any honour or neglect on their part. 

William Dandridge. 
W. Byrd. 

The Names of the Commiffioners to direff the running of the Line 
between Virginia and North Carolina. 

William Byrd, ) 

Rich'd Fitz-william, [ -, .„ - xr . . . 

Wr, <tam DAND«m« C Commiffioners for \ irgin.a. 


William Dandridge, f 

Christopher Gale, \ 

John Lovewick. / 

Edward Moseley, > Commiffioners fur Carolina. 

W'm Little, V 

Efqrs, / 


Alex'r Irvin, 
William Mayo, 

The Hijiory of the 

Surveyors for Virginia. 

Edw'd Moseley, ? Surveyors for N. Carolina. 

Sam ll Swan, \ J 

The Rev'd Peter Fountain, Chaplain. 

Na7nes of the Men employ' d on the 
betiveen that Colony 


1. Peter Jones, 

2. Thomas Jones, 

3. Thomas Short, 

4. Robert Hix, 

5. John Evans, 

6. Stephen Evans, 

7. John Ellis, 

8. John Ellis, Jr. 

9. Thomas Wilfon, 

10. George Tilman, 

11. Charles Kimbal, 

12. George Hamilton, 

13. Robert Allen, 

14. Thomas Jones, Jun r 

15. James Petillo, 

16. Richard Smith, 

17. John Rice. 

part of Virginia to ran the Line 
and N. Carolina. 


Peter Jones, 
Thomas Jones, 
Thomas Short, 
Robert Hix, 
John Evans, 
Stephen Evans, 
John Ellis, 
John Ellis, Jr. 
Thomas Wilfon, 
George Tilman, 
Charles Kimbal, 
George Hamilton, 
Thomas Jones, Jun r 
James Petillo, 
Rich'd Smith, 
Abraham Jones, 
Edward Powell, 
William Pool, 
William Calvert, 
James Whitlock, 
Thomas Pae;e. 

Account oj the Expence of running the Line between Virginia and 
N. Carolina. 

To the Men's Wages in Currant Money - 
To Sundry Difburfmcnts for Provifions, &c. 
To Paid the Men for 7 Horfes loft - 

227 10 o 

174 01 6 


o o 

£495 1 1 6 

Dividing Line. 

The Sum of .£495 116 Current Money rcduc't at 

15 p cent. Sterling amounts to 
To paid to colo Byrd - 
To paid to colo Dandridge - - 

To paid Mr. Fitz- William - 
To paid to the Chaplain, Mr. Fountain 
To paid to Mr. William Mayo - 
To paid to Mr. Alex Irvin - 

To paid for a Tent and Marquis - 


















Xiooo o o 

This Summ was difcharg'd by a Warrant out of His Ma 
efty's Quitrents from the Lands in Virginia. 



■ . 

I N 

E X . 

A DVENTURERS' Vifit, Ame- 
"^7 rica, 3. 

Albemarle, Duke of, 197-211 
Albemarle Sound, 54, 59. 
Alexander, Sir William, 9. 
Allen, Col., 18. 
Allen, Robert, 224. 
Allen, Widow, 18. 
Alligators, 182. 
Ambergris, 165. 
Amidas, fails for Virginia, 2. 
Anderfon, Charles, 69. 
Andros, Sir Edmond, 9. 
Angelica Plant, 99. 
Anfwer to Proteft of Carolina Com- 

miihonen, 221. 
Antidotes to Poifon, 82, 84, 89, 90. 
Appalachian Mountain, 152. 
Appamattoek River, 86, 137-193. 
Appendix, 197. 
Aprons, Indian, 171. 
Aramanchy River, 181. 
Argall, Samuel, 10. 
Arms of England, erected in Vir- 
ginia, 92. 
Arrows, Obfolete, 73. 
Aftiley, Lord, 197-211. 


ABOONS, Mode of Robbing 

Orchards, 1 00. 
Back Bay, 29. 
Badges adopted, 1 3 5. 
Bainton, Epaohroditus, 86. 
Balhnce, Mr!, 35. 
Baltimore, Lord, Grant to, II. 
Barlow, fails for Virginia, 2. 

Bears, 89,98, 113, 117, 120, 125, 
158, 167, 175; Description of, 
167; Fiftring by, 112; Meat, 
EfFefts of, 145, 187; Oil, 163; 
Story, 127-155; Tracks, 128. 

Beads of Burden, unknown to In- 
dians, 157. 

Bearfkin, 185-187 ; Theology of, 

Beaver Creek, 91 ; Dams, 91 ; 
Mode of taking, 91. 

Beavers, 175-177; how taken, 176. 

Beaver Pond, 83. 

Bell's Ifland, 23. 

Berkley, Lord, Grant to, PI. 

Berkley, Sir William, 14, 197-211. 

Birth Day of His Majeily, 143. 

Bladen, Colonel, 31. 

Blowing Creek, 93, 173. 

Boiling, Colonel, 191, 193. 

Bolton's Ferry, 70. 

Eombo, a Drink, defcribed, 57. 

Bolton founded, 8. - 

Boundaries of Carolina, 15. 

Boundary Commiffion formed, 17; 
aflemble, 23 ; Survey began, 25, 
27 ; Curiofity occasioned by, 30, 
46; Difmal Swamp paiTcd, 61; 
adjourn till Autumn, 70 ; Sur- 
vey refumed, 78 ; abandoned 
by Carolina Commifiioners, 95 ; 
continued by Virginia Commif- 
fioncrs, 96 ; Survey fufpcndeJ, 
133; returns to Settlement, 1 £6 ; 
concluding Remarks, 194; royal 



Approbation of, 211 ; Appoint- 
ment of, 217; Names of, 223. 

Boyle, Mr., 74. 

Brandy, Effects of, 79; loft, 80. 

Brinkley, Peter, 52, 54. 

Brunfwick County, 83. 

Buckingham County, 13. 

Buffalo Creek, gy, 170. 

Buffalo, 172; how tamed, 173; 
feek, 94, 172; Tracks, 92. 

Byrd, William, 217, 223. 

pABINS, Indian, 71. 
-* Cabin Branch, 84. 
Cabot, Sebaftian, 9. 
Calvert, William, 224. 
Canal propofed, 54. 
Candleberry, Myrtle, 19. 
Canes, Manner of Growth, 102. 
Cane Creek, 102. 
Canoe Landing, 86. 
Cape Fear River, 18 1. 
Carolina Charter, 197 j granted, 

14, 15. 
Carolina Tea, 24. 
Carr, Sir Robert, 10. 
Cart for Provifions, 80, 85, 87. 
Carterett, Sir George, 197-21 1. 
Cafquade Creek, 114., 115, 156. 
Catawbas, 67, 120, 141, 175, 180, 

1 Si, 183, 1S8. 
Cattle, how kept, 32, 46. 
Cedar Ifland, 28. 
Cenfare of Carolina Commiflion- 

ers, 211. 
Chaplain to Boundary Commiffion, 

17, 22, 30, 43, 44, 49, 57, 63, 

77> 79> So, S3, 95, 135, 145, 

146, 152, 170, 171, 193; Name 

of, 224. Iflands, Route by Way 

of, 4. 
Charity Mountains, 194. 
Charming of Serpents, 87. 
Charter of Carolina, 197. 
Chaility, Indian, 187. 
Cherokees, 141. 

Chefter County, 13. 

Chefapeak Bay, entered by Colo- 

nifts, 4. 
Chowan River, 66, 215, 216. 
Chrifterungs, 44, 46, 57, 63, 64, 

6 9 , 70, 71, 80, 83, 87, i83. 
Church firft creeled, 5 ; none in 

North Carolina, 65 ; none at 

Edenton, 59. 
Churches' Ifland, 23. 
Cider, Fondnefs for, 69. 
Clarendon, Earl of, 197-21 1. 
Cliff Creek, 164. 
Climate, Remarks on, 159, 160, 
Cocquade Creek, 10 1. 
Cohungaroota, 137. 
Cohunks, 1 1 2. 
Cold, Benefits of, 160. 
Colleton, Sir John, 197-211. 
Colleton Ifland, 2, 14. 
Colonization of Virginia began, 2. 
Colt's-foot, Plant, 97. 
Commiflion of Lieut. Governor 

of Virginia, 217 ; Governor of 

North Carolina, 219. 
Confirmation of Boundary, 211. 
Connecla Creek, 174. 
Connecticut fettled, 8. 
Confidences troubled, 95. 
Corn railed, 63. 
Corope:ik, 45, 52. 
Corotuck Inlet, I S, 21, 23, 25, 26, 

36, 67; Magiftrate, 65; River, 

215, 220. 
Cotton, 41-63. 
Couriers de Bois, 152. 
Crane Creek, 181. 
Cranes, Flight of, 69. 
Craford, Mr., 19. 
Craven, Ear] of, 197-21 1. 
Crocodile, 182. 
Cromwell, Oliver, 8. 
Crooked Creek, 128, 129, 130. 

Cub, Adventure with, 154. 
Cuftard Complexion explained, 32. 
Cyprefs Swamp, 45. 



*~^ Dances, Indian, 72. 
Dandridge, William, 217, 223. 
Dan River, 86,_ 101, III, 112, 

114, 116, 156, 160, 164. 
Deep River, 1S1. 
Deer, 91, 93, 97, 9 S > xl 3> IJ 7. 
126, 143, 145' H 6 » J 5 2 ' ! 5 8 ' 
161, 166, 177 ; hunting, 109, 
170; Skins, 162. 
Defpaif ing Lover's Leap, 131. 
Diimal Swamp, 19, 37> 3 8 > '4 I_ 
45> 47 > 53; Line trough, fin- 
iihed, 61. 
Dittany, a Remedy, 163. 
Dividing Line, Beginning of, 26, 27. 
Dogwood Bark as a Medicine, 80. 
Dofier's Ifiand, 27. 
Dreams, 144. 

Duke of York, Grant to, 11. 
Dutch fettle New York, 10. 

ECHO, remarkable, 45, 191. 
Eden, Charles, 17, 216,217. 
Edenton, N. C, 57-6°> 63. 
Elizabeth, Queen, grants Vir- 
ginia, 1. 
Elizabeth River, 19, 20, 41, 53. 
Elk, 134. 
Ellis, John, 224. 
Ellis, John, Jr., 224. 
Embry, Captain, 191. 
Emigration began, 3. 
Eno River, iSo. 
Epigram, 76. 
Evans, John, 224. 
Evans, Stephen, 224. 
Everard, Sir Richard, 17, 219,22c. 
Expenfes of Survey, 224. 
Eyland, Mr., 30. 

"PECUNDITY, Secret of, 145. 
" Fences, how made, 59. 
Fern Root, an Antidote to Rattle- 
fnake Bite, 88. 

Fires, 1-0, 128, 129. 

Fire hunting, 170. 

Fire-arms among Indians, 73, 74. 

Fifh, poifonous, 166. 

Fitzwilliam, Richard, 95, 96, 217, 

Flat River, 180. 
Flax, 41. 

Foxes, 58. 

Fort, •Indian, 71. 

Fountain, Rev. Peter, 224. 

Fountain's Creek, 80, 81, 83, 84. 

French in Canada, 6; fettle Nova 
Scotia, 9; Territory of the, 138. 

Frog, Egyptian, 177. 

Froft, 89. 

Fugitive Slaves, 34. 

Future Life, Indian Belief of, ic6. 

/^«ALE, Chriitopher, 49, 219, 

^ J 221, 223. 

Gall-buih, 19, 36. 

Gccfe, wild, 87, ill, 112. 

Georgia, Trade with, 142. 

Gibbs, Governor, 31. 

Ginfeng, 161. 

Glue Broth, 147. 

Gluttony, 139. 

Godwin, Mr., 19. 

Gooch, William, 17, 219. 

Goofe, ^cheated by an Echo, 191. 

Gout, Treatment of, 13$, 138. 

Graftcnried, Baron de, 174. 

Grapes, 98. 

Great Creek, 89, 90, 178, 179. 

Great Spirit, 97, 1 06. 

Gram Sea, 53. 

Griffin, Charies, 75. 

Gunpowder Plot, 11. 

TTAMILTON, George, 224. 
■*■■*• Hampden vifits New Eng 

land, 8. 
Harding, William, 27. 
Harrifon, Henry, 77. 



Haw old Fields, 180. 
Haw Tree Creek, 89. 
Heath, John, 29, 30. 
Hennepin, Father, Allufion to, 

Hermit, Refidcnce of, 26. 
Hickory Trees, 113. 
Hicootomony River, 94. 
Hico River, 93, 94., 96, 172. 
Highland Ponds, 116, 159. 
Hill, John, So. 

Hix, Robert, 224. 

Hix's Creek, 164. 

Hixc, George, 187. 

Horfcs for Wood Service, 150; 
Sores on, 166; left or loft, 125, 
126, 142, 149, 154, 156, 167. 

Horfe Flies, 163. 

Hofpitality, Indian, 73. 

Hoftages, Indian, 75. 

Hudfon, Henry, 10. 

Hunter hired, 88. 

Hunting in a Ring, 140, 171. 

Hurricane, Effects of, 1 8. 

TB1S, Egyptian, 177. 

A Indian Chaftity, 73 ; Religion, 

106; Superftiuon, 103; Trade, 2, 

141, 180, 183; Wars, izo, 184. 

Indians as Horfemen, 188; Fail- 
ure to civilize, 74, 76; have no 
Sabbath, 153; Marches of, 157; 
met, 66; Nottoway, 71; Sapo- 
ni, 88. 

Indolence of Settlers, 56, 184, 

Infects, 162. 

Inilruclions of Surveyors, 25. 

Inundations, 68. 

Ipocoacanna, 85. 

Irvin, Mr., 54, 158. 

Irvin River, 116, 118, 126, 128, 
135, 145, 152. 

Irwin, Alexander, 17, 145, 224. 

Ifle of Wight County, 68. 

Ives, Timothy, 41. 

AMES River, 136, 137, 193. 
Jameitown, 5. 
Japou, a Plant, 24. 
Jones, Abraham, 224. 
Jones, Peter, 224. 
Jones, Thomas, 224. 
Jones, Thomas, Jr., 224. 
Jumping Creek, 91. 
Juflice in Corrotuck Precinct, 65, 

"IZ"EITH, Cornelius, 184/ 
■"■ Kent County, 13. 
Kiawan Mountain, 140. 
Kimbal, Charles, 224. 
Kinchin, Mr., 6q, 70, 78, 79. 
Kindred, Mr., 70. 
Kinquotan, 5. 
Knot's Ifland, 23, 27, 28, 29. 

T ATITUDES obferved, 25, 

Lawfon, John, 66, 174, 214. 
Licences to Traders, 142. 
Light, Meteoric, 1 1 5. 
Lightning, Effects of, 67, 149, 15c; 

Philofophy of, 1 10. 
Liquors, Scent of, 49; fpent, 96. 
Little, William, 57, 219, 221, 223. 
Little River, 53, 180. 
Lizzard's Creek, 84. 
Locuft Thicket, 129. 
Log Houfes, 59. 
Loufe, to pilot North, 40. 
Lovers' Leap, 140. 
Lovick, John, 219, 221, 223. 
Lowland" Creek, 112, 156. 
Lubberland, 56. 
Luke Ifland, 197. 

fAGNETIC Variation, 21, 

* 27, 67, 90, 143. 

Maiuenhair, Plant, 97. 
Man loft, 124, 140, 142. 
Mandcviiic, Sir John, 105. 
Maps of Boundary, 70, 95, g6. 
Marble, 114. 



Marriages, 44, 46; with Indians, 

76, 11. 
Marfton, Mr., 21. 
Martha's Vineyard fettled, 7. 
Martyrdom of Nuns, 79. 
Maryland taken from Virginia, 

1 1. 
Maffamony Creek, 7, 177. 
MalTachufetts Charter, 9; Colo- 
ny, 7- / 
Mathias, River of, 197. 
Matrimony Creek, 149. 
Mayo, Joiepli, 63. 
Mayo, William, 17, 54, 222, 224. 
Mayo River, 126, 127. 
Mead, Andrew, 42, 49. 
Medicines furrflihed Surveyors, 38. 
Meherin Indians, 66. 
Meherin River, 67, 70, 80, 81, 

187, 190. 
Men employed on Survey, Names, 

Merchant, Mr., 31. 
Militia Training, 70. 
Milk, Scarcity of, 32. 
Mines, Profpect of finding, 138. 
Miry Creek, 126. 
Miffionaries, 60. 
Moni-feep Ford, 86. 
Moratuck River, 174. 
Mofeley, Edward, 16, iS, 63, 79, 

85, 212, ZI4, 219, 223, 224. 
Mountains, 103, 128, 131, 136, 

140; as a Barrier, 138. 
Mules, 150. 
Mumford, Colonel, 87, 179, 185, 

J 93- 
Mufic, Power of, 167, 168. 
Mufoeetos, 28, 30, 46, 59, 164. 

]SjANSEMOND River, 19, 42, 

5°> 53> 54, 69. 
Nauvafa, 181. 
Neufe River, 174. 
Newcaftle Country, 13. 
New England, fet apart from Vir- 

ginia, 6; Preachers, chance for, 

43; Traders, 23. 
New Hampfhire fettled, 8. 
New Haven fettled, 8. 
New Inlet, 23. 
New Scotland, 9. 
New Jerfey fettled, 12. 
New Plymouth fettled, 7. 
New York fettled, 10. 
Nicholfon, General, 10. 
Norfolk, 19. 
North Carolina, Settlement of 

Boundaries of, 15; in Reference 

for, 65 ; no Churches in, 65 ; 

lawlefs, 65, 
Northern's Creek, 33. 
North River, 28, 30, 53. 
North Weft River, 21, 22, 31, 33, 


Norway Mice, 62. 

Nofes arretted by Difeafe, 33. 
Nottoway River, 16, 66, 67, 70, 

192, 213, 215. 
Nottoway Town, 71. 
Nuns, Story of, 1S9, 190. 
Nut-Bum Creek, 90, 17S. 
Nut Oil, 1 13. 


^'^ 190. 

Ohimpamony Creek, 91, 175. 

Olive Trees, 160. 

Qpoflum, 143. 

Orchards, 58, 69. 

Order of King and Council upon 

Propofals, 216. 
Otters, 178. 

DACO, a Eeaft of Burthen, 157. 

Page, Thomas, 224. 
Paint-Creek, 90. 
Pamptico River, 180. 
Panthers, 1 1 7. 
Paradifc, Notions of, 106. 
Paraquets injure Orchards, 58. 
Parker, Richard, 64, 70. 



Partridge, Mountain, ioo. 

Pafquetunk, 53. 

Pea Creek, 84. 

Peak, [Peague,] 72. 

Pedee River, 18 1. 

Penn, William, 1 3. 

Pennsylvania granted, 1 3. 

Penny Royal, a Remedy, 163. 

Pequimons, 53. 

Petillo, James, 224. 

Philadelphia, 13. 

PhippSj Sir William, 9. 

Phylarrea, 24. 

Pigeons, 119. 

Pidgeon-Rooil Creek, 85, 87. 

Pines, 55. 

Plymouth Grant, 6. 

Pocofon, 30, 31, 33, 35, 66. 

Pochoon, 77. 

Point Comfort, 4. 

Poifoned Fields, 89. 

Polecats, 192. 

Pool, William, 224. 

Pork, Effects of, 32, 33. 

Port Royal taken, 9. 

Polls to mark Boundary, 63, 64. 

Potomac River, 137, 213. 

Poverty-, wretched Scene of, 184. 

Powhatan River, 4. 

Prefcot Landing, 21. 

Prefents from Indians, jj. 

Prifoners taken by Indians, 122. 

Propofals for determining Contro- 
versy, 215. 

Proteft of Carolina Commiflioners, 
96, 220. 

Provifions, Amount of, 78, 79. 

Pym viiits New England, 8. 

QUAKERS, 12, 13; Quaker 
C^ Meeting-houfo, 42. 
Quern Stones, 184. 

T> ACCOON, 130. 
■ LV Raft, 154. 
Rappahannock, 213. 

Rattle-makes; 70, 82-84, 8 7! Mode 
of catching Prey, 87 ; Oil, 139. 

Rattle-make Root, 82, 83, 90. 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 1, 2, 3. 

Religion of Indians, 106. 

Rhode Ifland fettled, 7. 

Rice, John, 224. 

Riley, Miles, 185. 

Roanoke River, 81, 84-87, 94, 
101, 137, 184, 18S, 194, 220. 

Roanoke Inlet, 2, 3. 

Rockahomitiv, 109, 121, 146, 148. 

Rofemary, wild, 110. 

Rum, known as "Kill Devil,' 5 57; 
Indians fond of, 74. 

CABBATH-Breaking, 153, 170. 

° Sable Creek, III, 158. 

St. Andrew's Crofs, 84. 

Santee River, 1S1, 182. 

Sapponi Indians, 75, 8*8* 187, 188. 

Sapponi Chapped, 192. 

Savvros, 113. 

Saxapahaw River, 180, 181. 

Scalping, 1 22, 186. 

Senecas, 174. 

Seneca Rattle-fnake Root, 88, 139. 

Sharantow River, 137. 

Sheep, railing of, 81. 

Shells, 24. 

Short, Thomas, 224. 

Silk Grafs, 171. 

Sleeping, Manner of, 131. 

Smith, Capt. John, 4. 

Smith, Richard, 224. 

Smoking introduced at Court, 3. 

Snakes, 160. 

Somerton Creek, 66. 

Sommerton Chapel, 65. 

South Virginia, how defined, 1. 

Southwell, Edw., 215, 216. 

Spermaceti, 166. 

Spice Trees, 93. 

Spired Leaf Silk Grafs, 24. 

Spight, Thomas, 45. 

Spight, William, 65. 


2 33 

Spotfwood, Col. A., 17, 75, 7 6 > 

188, 216, 217, «y. 

Squirrels, 132, 179. 
Star Grafs, 82. 
Sraunton River, 86. 
Steukenhocks, 188. 
Stinker, 193. 
Stony Creek, 192. 
Sturgeon Creek, 190. 
Sturgeon Fiihery, 190. 
Sugar from Trees, 92. 
Sugar-Tree Creek, 93, 172. 
Sundays difregarded, 45. 
SuperAition, Indian, 97, 103. 
Surveyors appointed, 17; Names 

of, 224. 
Suilex County, 13. 
Swan, Samuel, 18, 23, 51, 54, 63, 

79 , 224. 
Swedes, Settlement of, 12. 
• Sweet Gum Tree, 165. 

'"TAR, 5 6 > 6 3- 
■*■ Tarantula Bites, how cured, 
168, 169. 

Tarapin caught, 165. 

Tar River, 180. 

Temperate Climate, 1 59. 

Tetero, King, 188. 

Tewahominy Creek, 92. 

Tewawhomini Creek, 173. 

Thankfgiving, 185, 186. 

Tike, 162. 

Tilman, George, 224. 

Tobacco, Purchafe of, 50; intro- 
duced, 2. 

Tortures, 122. 

Tradeing Path, 179-181. 

Traditions, Indian, 175. 

Turkeys, wild, 81, 94, 97, 103, 
106, 113; T l 9> l 3S> H^j 161, 
166, 176, 177. 

Turkey Buzzards, 50, 94, 146. 

Turpentine, 56. 

Turtle's Eggs, 165. 

Tufcarora Indians, 174. 

Tufkarooda Creek, 92. 


SHEREES, 181. 

TTIRGINIA, how defined, 1. 

WALKER, Mr., 191. 
War Parties, how formed, 


Water, Clearnefs of, 86. 
Weft Jerfey Grant. 12. 
Wharves, Mode of building, 20. 
Weyanoke Creek, 15, 16, 212, 

213, 220. 
Whales, 165, 166. 
White, Mr., 28. 
Whitlock, William, 224. 
Wicocon Creek, 16, 213, 215. 
Wicro-quoi Creek, 191. 
Wild-cat, 91,92. 
Wilkins, William, 37. 
William and Mary's College, 74, 

Wilfons, Thomas, 39, 41, 224. 

Wolves, 58, 98, 99, 177- 

Wool, 41. 

YADKIN River, 181, 188. 
Yatapfco, 9 1. *75> l 7h 
Yaws, defcribed, 32, 33.